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  • Author: Bartłomiej Drop x
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Encounter of the globalized world with the pandemic of new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 presents humanity of almost all countries in an unprecedented, dangerous situation. The new coronavirus is responsible for COVID-19 disease, which is currently the most important, international problem of public health. In the period from 31st December, 2019 to 12th April, 2020 as many as 1 734 913 COVID-19 cases were reported in the world, including 108 192 deaths. In Poland 6674 cases were reported, including 232 deaths.

The coronavirus pandemic is not still under control, neither in the world nor in Europe, and chances for the disappearance of the problem during the next few months are small. The most important in counteraction of the virus transmission are prevention and control of epidemic. The necessary social distance should be maintained, protective masks should be worn and hand-hygiene procedures should be respected. Fast, reliable diagnostics, proper way of procedure in the case of infection, isolation rules implementation and, in the future, protective vaccinations are of a key importance in reduction of virus transmission in the population.

At the same time, together with the COVID-19 pandemic emergence, collapse of the globalization rules may be observed, which manifests in closing borders, avoiding traveling, depending of competing countries on each other in the range of necessary medications or other critical resources. The emergence of the second wave of disease is probable, especially in the case of too early abolition of restrictions preventing virus transmission. Apart from reducing the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, efforts should be made to elaborate complex measures preventing future epidemics of animal origin.


Health education is the main, and at the same time, integral part of complementary health promotion. The main assumption underlying the essence of health education is an assertion that the health of individuals and, consequently, of communities they belong to is significantly conditioned by the behaviour of inter-subject variability, which can be pro-healthily shaped by the educational impact. Thanks to transferred knowledge, shaping attitudes and the acquisition of certain skills, patients receive help in coping with health problems which improves their well-being, satisfaction, and the process of recovery. The education of a patient has advantages either in the clinical or social field, hence, it is perceived as an inseparable part of a high-quality healthcare. The importance of health education has been also recognized as one of the main factors that determine the long-term health policy, which indirectly may be reflected in the reduction of costs in the healthcare. In the recent years, more and more emphasis has been placed on preventive and educational aspects of the healthcare. Family medicine, as the source of the initiation of shaping health-oriented attitudes, has a prominent place in the system organized in such a way. In patients' opinion, medical staff is the best and most reliable source of knowledge on health. Such expectations increase the importance of primary care physicians in preventing diseases and shaping health-oriented attitudes in a given society. The main task of a modern health education is primarily to support the creation of conditions for change, the growth competence of individuals and groups in the sphere of independent action for health at different levels of the organization of social life.


Introduction. Family medicine has a growing responsibility for the health of an individual, and therefore of society as a whole. Establishing an efficient primary healthcare system requires devising an appropriate management strategy. Surveying the quality assessment of medical services is an important element that influences the future shape of the development and management strategy in communes due to the dynamically changing demographic and economic trends, which are leaving their mark on the functioning of local communities.

Aim. Evaluation of quality of medical services in primary healthcare centres in communes of Lubelskie Voivodeship.

Material and methods. The anonymous survey was conducted among 60 patients benefitting from the medical services provided in healthcare centres in Niemce (Niemce Commune, Lublin District). An original questionnaire in the form of a poll was used to assess the quality of services provided in primary healthcare centres.

Results. The results of surveys carried out among the patients of medical centres providing services in the field of primary healthcare (PHC) demonstrated the high level of satisfaction with the received services among the respondents. However, the accessibility of primary healthcare services outside the business hours of PHC centres and the functioning of prevention and health-education programmes need improvement.

Conclusions. Based on the survey results we can conclude that the quality assessment of medical services provided by PHC centres, carried out through the ongoing monitoring of patients’ satisfaction, should be the most important indicator of changes in the management of primary healthcare.


Introduction. Family medicine remains the primary type of medical services in Poland and it is supposed to treat both individual patients and the society as a whole. Due to the growing commercialization of the health service, most primary healthcare centers have transformed into non-public healthcare facilities. The public ones (called SPZOZ in Polish) account only for a small fraction of the whole number of primary healthcare facilities. The quality of medical services provided by such facilities, as patients see it, remains one of the key elements determining the development of family medicine centers.

Aim. The aim of this paper was to assess patient satisfaction levels regarding the healthcare services they received in two primary healthcare institutions, both of the NZOZ and SPZOZ type, in a small town located close to Lublin.

Material and methods. An anonymous survey was filled out by 30 patients of both a public and non-public healthcare center located in Niemce (Niemce Commune, Lublin District). The quality of services was assessed using an original questionnaire in the form of a poll.

Results. The results obtained indicate a clear relationship between one’s trust to the physician, diagnosis accuracy and visiting the particular center again, in order to continue the treatment. For older subjects, it was nurses’ kindness and politeness that was the most important. The elderly appreciated the kindness and politeness of the nurses in particular. No significant differences were found between the institutions in respect of the overall perception of satisfaction with services. In terms of infrastructure assessment, the majority of positive feedback was provided for NZOZ.

Conclusions. The findings above suggest that it is essential to conduct surveys on a regular basis, in order to check patients’ assessment of the service quality in various institutons.


Introduction. Population aging poses many important economic, social, and health challenges to the modern world. This applies mostly to developed countries. The phenomenon requires joint action of Member States of the European Union, the World Health Organization, the United Nations, the Council of Europe as well as some unified strategies for the actions taken by these entities.

Aim. The aim of this study was to demonstrate international strategies implemented in the face of demographic changes.

Material and methods. The authors analyzed the documents outlining strategies for both organizations and entities, as well as recommendations for international scientific consultation on strategy of the aging population.

Results. Analysis of changes happening to the oldest age groups showed the need for cooperation between countries. An overview of the strategies being taken at the moment and those that had been undertaken previously by international entities can contribute to modify the arrangements of the elderly; in order to improve the living conditions in multidimensional aspect.

Conclusions. The key to achieving the desired effect through implementing the policies of individual countries is to monitor them on a regular basis.


Introduction. The quality of medical services can be regarded as an indication of the changes being implemented at a given moment. At the same time, improving the care quality remains essential, regardless of the current situation. This makes upgrading employees’ skills a necessity, for instance by preventing undesired events, like hospital acquired infections which are quite common.

Aim. The aim of this study was to measure the quality of nursing care delivered to patients who contracted a hospital-acquired disease, with special attention paid to the adherence by aseptic procedures.

Material and methods. The authors of this research study want to assess the quality of nursing care, looking through the lens of adherence by aseptic techniques.

Results. The study was conducted in hospitals of three different referral levels. Both the highest (=95.7%) and the lowest (=84.7%) rates in the field of quality of nursing care were reported in provincial hospitals.

Conclusion. 1. There is a 10% deficit in terms of adherence to aseptic procedures. 2. Constant supervision and upgrading nursing staff skills is essential.


Introduction. Measuring the patient satisfaction with the hospital stay, as well as the knowledge of their requirements are very important in the management of health institutions. A good example of the recognition of patients’ expectations is studying the level of satisfaction with specially prepared questionnaires.

Aim. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the patients’ place of residence and their satisfaction with the medical care they received when treated in local hospitals

Material and methods. Patient satisfaction survey was carried out in the Independent Public Health Care Centre in Kraśnik in two subsequent years: at the turn of 2011/2012 and in February 2013. The survey consisted of patients hospitalized in the surgical wards of the hospital. A testing tool for this survey was a self-designed questionnaire entitles “Patient satisfaction survey” specifically developed by nursing managers and approved by the management of the hospital.

Results. Patients of the District Hospital in Kraśnik gave their complex assessment of satisfaction with the benefits provided by the health care facility, taking into account not only the quality of strictly medical services, but the entire infrastructure of the hospital, including ancillary services. The obtained results gave a positive assessment of the analyzed branches. No statistically significant differences between the assessments of rural and urban inhabitants were found. The results allow knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of medical care in the wards.

Conclusions. Residents of rural areas, who are slightly better than those who live in cities, assess the work of local hospital surgical wards. You can clearly see it by assessing the quality of nurses’ and doctors’ work and the assessment of nutrition and the appearance of patient rooms. Systematic research, measurement and evaluation of patient satisfaction with hospital care can be the basis for the improvement and ensure an appropriate level of quality


The authors will try to introduce the subject and provide arguments that will show the differences and similarities between psychiatric health care center and nursing home, as Polish society often wrongly use those two different types of institutional support interchangeably.

Both, health care center and nursing home offer round-the-clock services, but they differ in scope of activity. The knowledge of the profile of institutional units should be an essential argument when choosing the type of institution. The basic criterion for admission to the health care center (psychiatric or somatic) are medical condition, the presence of the disease and the need for continued treatment. While the cause of referring to the nursing home is, or in many cases should be, the life incapability, the lack of support of the home environment or homelessness.

Awareness to the highest quality of care and support should be an overarching value of all institutions, both health care and social welfare and the standards of care and support should contribute to changing society’s attitude to this type of institutions.


Increasing interest has been focused on the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-associated cancers, including oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) and gastric cancer (GC). Different cytokines, growth factors and proteins take part in oncogenesis. The aim of our study was to generate a comparison of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) levels, as well as latent membrane protein (LMP-1), Epstein-Barr virus capsid antigen (EBVCA), Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA) and early antigen (EA) frequency in the serum of patients with GC and OPC. The study involved 50 patients with diagnosed GC and 50 patients with OPC. All studied patients were EBV positive. Fresh-frozen tumor tissue fragments were tested using nested PCR assay for EBV DNA detection. Sera from all individuals were investigated using ELISA tests to detect the presence of EBVCA IgG, EBNA IgG, EA IgG, as well as to determine the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis. In patients with GC, the levels of TGF-β and IL-10 were significantly higher than in OPC patients. However, the frequency and level of EBVCA, EBNA and EA in patients with OPC and GC were not significantly different. In contrast, TGF-β and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in EBVaGC, as compared to OPC, suggesting their role in gastric carcinogenesis. The differences in frequency of LMP-1 detection in patients with OPC and GC may suggest different mechanism of oncogenesis. Further studies are required to clarify the role of Epstein-Barr virus in cancer development.


Introduction. The aim of the surveillance over infections is to define the critical points, lacks in knowledge of staff skills, as well as lack of equipment. It is aimed at preventing the same mistakes from being conducted all over again, instead of making those guilty suffer from consequences of their mistakes.

Aim. The authors aimed at assessing the quality of nursing care procedures in terms of preventing post-operative wound infections.

Materials and methods. The research was conducted in medical treatment, surgical and intensive care ward. A self-constructed questionnaire “Nursing care quality and prophylaxis of hospital-acquired infections” was used for the study. It was validated using the peer judges method.

Results and conclusions. The highest nursing care coefficient was noted in county hospitals ( x̅ = 94.5%), while the lowest was noted in clinical hospitals ( x̅ = 91.3%). It was concluded that there is a deficit in adherence to procedures related to post-operative wound treatment.