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Open access

Tadeusz Olkuski, Adam Szurlej and Barbara Tora

Abstract

The trend towards globalization can be observed for many years. It is reflected by the ongoing elimination of trade barriers between countries and the introduction of a system of mutual recognition of quality standards. The best example is the European Union, where a common market for many industries has been developed. Such a common market has already existed before in the United States of America and that this is why the negotiations on the merger of the largest and most developed economies in the world started in 2013. The currently negotiated agreement, the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) is designed to eliminate barriers to trade and capital flows between the two mentioned markets. The article attempts to evaluate the trade of energy commodities, namely crude oil and natural gas, between the European Union and the United States. The estimates for the next years are based on historical data and the current state. The dynamics of natural gas and crude oil production in the European Union and the United States, as well as changes in the import and export of these energy resources, have been shown. The volume of gas production from the largest North American deposits was also subjected to analysis. Special attention was paid to natural gas from unconventional deposits, as its production is expected to grow continuously until 2040. Meanwhile, the production of gas from conventional deposits is expected to decrease. The rest of the paper is focused on the balance sheets of cash for oil and natural gas. It was pointed out that the market situation for both commodities is different. In the EU, the production and consumption of both crude oil and natural gas gradually decreases, while in the United States this trend is reversed. On the other hand, some similarities can be seen in the refining industry. In recent years, many refineries were closed both in the European Union and in the United States. However, though this trend was more pronounced in Europe. In the case of liquefied gas (LNG), the expansion of US gas to Europe can be expected. Currently, the United States is building about 30 export terminals and production surpluses will certainly be exported to Europe. Judging by the pace of development of export terminals, it can be assumed that the power of condensation can reach up to 110 million tons in the near future and, as a consequence, natural gas in the form of LNG will be supplied to the European market.

Open access

Peter Fečko, Iva Janakova, Helena Raclavská and Barbara Tora

Application of flotation in the decontamination of sediments from the Cerny prikop stream

The stream Cerny prikop is located in the Ostrava city districts of Marianske Hory, Moravska Ostrava and Privoz. This locality belongs to the most polluted areas in Ostrava as it is unbearably polluted by the Coking Plant of Jan Sverma, company BorsodChem MCHZ (the chemical plant), City Waste Water Treatment Plant and a number of other companies in the given territory, all the way to its mouth to the Odra River. Moreover, the area is also affected by the construction of the D 47 motorway. The sediments of Cerny prikop represent a significant ecological burden within the Ostrava urban area. They are contaminated by a wide range of organic pollutants which have never been exactly identified.

Open access

Peter Fečko, Alena Kašpárková, Eva Pertile, Vlastimil Kříž, Barbara Tora, Andrzej Jarosiński and Iva Janáková

Application of pyrolysis residue from waste materials in black coal flotation

The paper deals with the verification of the floatability of pyrolytic oils, which were obtained through the pyrolysis of waste, namely mixed plastics, tyres and waste rubber in combination with black coal from Lazy Mine, and classical collector Montanol 551 in black coal flotation. Black coal from ČSA OKD, a.s. coal preparation plant was used for flotation tests. The results imply that it is possible to produce collectors from waste materials which may be applied in the flotation of black coal. Next, the paper focused on the identification of a suitable combination of pyrolytic oils and Montanol 551 in order to reach ash content in the concentrate below 10%.