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Open access

Barbara Tomaszewska

Streszczenie

Wody geotermalne to źródło czystej energii. Warto więc wykorzystywać je w sposób racjonalny zwłaszcza w sensie energetycznym i gospodarczym. Jednym z kluczowych czynników, determinujących warunki eksploatacji wód geotermalnych, wielkość wykorzystania energii oraz sposób zagospodarowania wód schłodzonych jest zasolenie wód. Podwyższone zasolenie oraz występowanie mikroelementów toksycznych w wodach może często determinować trudności związane utylizacją wykorzystanych wód. Tylko w kilku polskich zakładach geotermalnych wody eksploatowane są w układzie zamkniętym (po wykorzystaniu wtłaczane z powrotem do górotworu). Częściej stosowany jest system otwarty (wody odprowadzane są do cieków powierzchniowych lub kanalizacji) lub mieszany (tylko część wód wraca do złoża za pomocą otworów chłonnych, druga część jest zrzucana do rzek). Odsalanie wód eotermalnych może stanowić, w określonych przypadkach, alternatywę umożliwiającą zaspokojenie lokalnego zapotrzebowania na wodę słodką (np. zdatną do picia).

Ocena możliwości wdrożenia analizowanego procesu na skalę przemysłową w dużej mierze zależy od kierunków i możliwości utylizacji/zagospodarowania koncentratu. Biorąc pod uwagę względy środowiskowe, najkorzystniejszym rozwiązaniem jest wtłaczanie koncentratu do górotworu. Przeprowadzona analiza energe­tyczna i ekonomiczna wykazała, że opłacalność wdrożenia na skalę przemysłową procesu odsalania w systemie geotermalnym w dużej mierze zależy od czynników związanych z jego pracą, a w szczególności: wielkości wydobycia wód geotermalnych, zasolenia wód, parametrów chłonnych otworów przeznaczonych do wtłaczania wód do górotworu, skali problemów związanych z utylizacją schłodzonych wód, lokalnego zapotrzebowania na wody pitne i gospodarcze i in. Kluczowa dla opłacalności tego procesu jest między innymi redukcja wymaganego ciśnienia przy wtłaczaniu wód do górotworu i redukcja wielkości strumienia zatłaczanych wód. Bardzo ważnym elementem jest również zapewnienie odpowiednich warunków zbytu odsolonych wód (cena/ilość) celem pokrycia zapotrzebowania na energię elektryczną wykorzystaną w procesie odsalania.

Open access

Barbara Tomaszewska and Leszek Pająk

Streszczenie

Woda obiegowa w instalacjach ciepłowniczych musi posiadać odpowiednie parametry fizykochemiczne, uzależnione od wymagań technicznych producentów urządzeń, przez które przypływa. Nie powinna powodować powstawania kamienia kotłowego, pienić się oraz korozyjnie oddziaływać na elementy instalacji.

W pracy przedstawiono badania dotyczące oceny możliwości wykorzystania odpadowych wód termalnych w celu uzupełnienia ubytków wody sieciowej w największym polskim geotermalnym systemie ciepłowniczym zlokalizowanym w obrębie niecki podhalańskiej. Obszar ten cechuje się dużymi zasobami wód termalnych, a jednocześnie deficytem wód zwykłych. Odpadowe wody termalne ze względu na wykazywane parametry fizykochemiczne mogą być wykorzystane w systemie dopiero po uzdatnieniu. Podczas badań zagospodarowana i uzdatniana była jedynie część całkowitego strumienia wody geotermalnej (do 5 m3/h), odpowiadająca mniej więcej zapotrzebowaniu systemu ciepłowniczego na świeżą uzdatnioną wodę obiegową (ok. 550 m3/miesiąc). Ubytki wody sieciowej wynikają z nieszczelności sieci, prowadzenia remontów, modernizacji lub obsługi sieci. Oczyszczanie przeprowadzone zostało z wykorzystaniem procesów membranowych w zintegrowanym systemie złożonym z ultrafiltracji (UF) i dwóch niezależnych stopni odwróconej osmozy (RO-1 i RO-2) połączonych szeregowo. Uzdatnianie prowadzone było przy częściowym wykorzystaniu artezyjskiego ciśnienia złożowego, co pozwoliło zredukować moc pomp obiegowych eliminując zużycie energii o około 0,7-0,9 kW. Dzięki pod­wyższonej temperaturze wody uzdatnionej zredukowana została moc cieplna o około 30 kW oraz efektywniej prowadzone były procesy oczyszczania i odgazowania wody. Uzyskano redukcję: zawartości żelaza ze stężenia około 4 do 0,013 g/m3, twardości ogólnej z 13,5 val/m3 do <0,02 val/m3, zasadowości z 4,45 val/m3 do <0,01 val/m3, fosforanów z 0,03 do <0,006 g/m3, uzyskując spełnienie wymagań określonych w normach, co po korekcie pH i odgazowaniu pozwala wykorzystać uzdatnione wody geotermalne dla uzupełnienia ubytków wody sieciowej w systemie ciepłowniczym.

Polska Norma PN-85/C-04601 nie specyfikuje wymagań w zakresie dopuszczalnego stężenia m.in. chlorków i siarczanów w wodzie obiegowej, a więc anionów wpływających nakorozyjność wody, głównie wżerową. Jony te tworzą rozpuszczalne związki z metalami, utrudniając powstawanie i wytrącanie tlenków metali. Zastosowanie przedstawionej technologii membranowej w odsalaniu wód termalnych pozwoliło na uzyskanie wysokiego stopnia retencji. Wynosi on dla chlorków 97% po RO-1 i 99 % po RO-2, natomiast dla siarczanów 99% już po RO-1.

Open access

Barbara Tomaszewska and Leszek Pająk

Abstract

When identifying the conditions required for the sustainable and long-term exploitation of geothermal resources it is very important to assess the dynamics of processes linked to the formation, migration and deposition of particles in geothermal systems. Such particles often cause clogging and damage to the boreholes and source reservoirs. Solid particles: products of corrosion processes, secondary precipitation from geothermal water or particles from the rock formations holding the source reservoir, may settle in the surface installations and lead to clogging of the injection wells. The paper proposes a mathematical model for changes in the absorbance index and the water injection pressure required over time. This was determined from the operating conditions for a model system consisting of a doublet of geothermal wells (extraction and injection well) and using the water occurring in Liassic sandstone structures in the Polish Lowland. Calculations were based on real data and conditions found in the Skierniewice GT-2 source reservoir intake. The main product of secondary mineral precipitation is calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite and calcite. It has been demonstrated that clogging of the active zone causes a particularly high surge in injection pressure during the fi rst 24 hours of pumping. In subsequent hours, pressure increases are close to linear and gradually grow to a level of ~2.2 MPa after 120 hours. The absorbance index decreases at a particularly fast rate during the fi rst six hours (Figure 4). Over the period of time analysed, its value decreases from over 42 to approximately 18 m3/h/MPa after 120 hours from initiation of the injection. These estimated results have been confi rmed in practice by real-life investigation of an injection well. The absorbance index recorded during the hydrodynamic tests decreased to approximately 20 m3/h/MPa after 120 hours.

Open access

Barbara Tomaszewska, Anna Sowiżdżał and Anna Chmielowska

Abstract

Geothermal resources have been used in Poland since the 90s of the last century. Since then, several geothermal heating plants, recreation and balneological centers have been operated.

Accessing geothermal resources is possible due to deep boreholes that are either brand-new wells or old but revitalized petroleum and/or exploratory wells. In this case, the construction of production and injection wells is of significant importance. The utilization of deep geothermal energy resources is strongly dependent on the binding domestic law regulations – primarily in case of acquiring the concession enabling an execution of geological and drilling works, and subsequently a proper exploitation.

The paper presents the current state of development of the geothermal energy sector in Poland, indicating examples of exploitation systems based on deep boreholes. Furthermore, the constructions of existing wells are discussed extensively. The existing examples of old but reconstructed wells in Poland, are characterized. The importance of national law and its influence on the development of a geothermal investment is highlighted, as well.

Open access

Barbara Tomaszewska, Leszek Pająk and Michał Bodzek

Abstract

M embrane-based water desalination processes and hybrid technologies are often considered as a technologically and economically viable alternative for desalination of geothermal waters. This has been confirmed by the results of pilot studies concerning the UF-RO desalination of geothermal waters extracted from various geological structures in Poland. The assessment of the feasibility of implementing the water desalination process analysed on an industrial scale is largely dependent on the method and possibility of disposing or utilising the concentrate. The analyses conducted in this respect have demonstrated that it is possible to use the solution obtained as a balneological product owing to its elevated metasilicic acid, fluorides and iodides ions content. Due to environmental considerations, injecting the concentrate back into the formation is the preferable solution. The energy efficiency and economic analysis conducted demonstrated that the cost effectiveness of implementing the UF-RO process in a geothermal system on an industrial scale largely depends on the factors related to its operation, including without limitation the amount of geothermal water extracted, water salinity, the absorption parameters of the wells used to inject water back into the formation, the scale of problems related to the disposal of cooled water, local demand for drinking and household water, etc. The decrease in the pressure required to inject water into the formation as well as the reduction in the stream of the water injected are among the key cost-effectiveness factors. Ensuring favourable desalinated water sale terms (price/quantity) is also a very important consideration owing to the electrical power required to conduct the UF-RO process.

Open access

Maciej Miecznik, Anna Sowiżdżał, Barbara Tomaszewska and Leszek Pająk

Abstract

The Chociwel region is part of the Szczecin Trough and constitutes the northeastern segment of the extended Szczecin-Gorzów Synclinorium. Lower Jurassic reservoirs of high permeability of up to 1145 mD can discharge geothermal waters with a rate exceeding 250 m3/h and temperatures reach over 90°C in the lowermost part of the reservoirs. These conditions provide an opportunity to generate electricity from heat accumulated in geothermal waters using binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) systems. A numerical model of the natural state and exploitation conditions was created for the Chociwel area with the use of TOUGH2 geothermal simulator (i.e., integral finite-difference method). An analysis of geological and hydrogeothermal data indicates that the best conditions are found to the southeast of the town of Chociwel, where the bottom part of the reservoir reaches 3 km below ground. This would require drilling two new wells, namely one production and one injection. Simulated production with a flow rate of 275 m3/h, a temperature of 89°C at the wellhead, 30°C injection temperature and wells being 1.2 km separated from each other leads to a small temperature drop and moderate requirements for pumping power over a 50 years’ time span. The ORC binary system can produce at maximum 592.5 kW gross power with the R227ea found as the most suitable working fluid. Geothermal brine leaving the ORC system with a temperature c. 53°C can be used for other purposes, namely mushroom growing, balneology, swimming pools, soil warming, de-icing, fish farming and for heat pumps.

Open access

Marta Dendys, Barbara Tomaszewska and Leszek Pająk

Abstract

Nowadays, numerical modelling is a common tool for supporting the research of geothermal systems. Due to the development of computer sciences and access to software dedicated to numerical modelling of hydrogeological processes this is possible. Research can schematise hydrogeological conditions and simulate the work of geothermal systems and thermal water intakes. Research creates numerical models of geothermal systems at the regional and local scale for simulating work of specific thermal waters for example.

In connection with the economic development of the use of thermal waters in Poland there are many research projects where numerical modelling occurs as a primary tool. This paper provides an overview of research issues where the solution to the problem was found by using computer applications and numerical simulators.

Open access

Michał Bodzek, Barbara Tomaszewska and Mariola Rajca

Abstract

There is often a need to improve the taste of mineral water by reducing the sulphate ion content. It was found that for such an effect, nanofiltration (NF) process can be used. In the case, the proposed formula was assumed obtaining a mineral water with reduction of H2S and SO4 2- content through the following processes: stripping - UF/MF or rapid fi ltration - nanofiltration - mixing with raw water or filtration through calcium bed. The paper shows the results of the tests, with use of mineral waters and nanofiltration. Commercial nanofiltration membranes NF-270 Dow Filmtec and NF-DK GE Infrastructure Water&Process Technologies were applied. NF was carried out for mixed water from both water intakes (1 and 2), recovery of 50%, at transmembrane pressure of 0.8-1.2 MPa in the dead-end fi ltration mode. In addition, the permeate obtained in NF was filtered through a column fi lled with 1.0-3.0 mm limestone rock, in order to improve the composition of mineral water. The tested mineral water is the sulphate-chloride-sodium-calcium-magnesium in nature and contains 991 mg/L of SO4 2- and 2398 mg/L of TDS, while the permeate after NF showed the chloride - sodium hydrogeochemical type (TDS: 780-1470 mg/L, sulfate 10-202.7 mg/L, calcium 23-39.7 mg/L, magnesium 11-28 mg/L). As a result of water treatment in the NF process, high reduction of SO4 2- ions was obtained (79-98.7%), while the TDS was reduced in 51-64%. Because the process of NF allows for relatively high reduction of bivalent ions, a significant reduction in calcium ion content (84-88%) and magnesium (84-89%) has been also obtained. Monovalent ions were reduced to a lesser extent, i.e. sodium in 46% and bicarbonates in 39-64.1%. Despite obtaining the positive effect of the sulphate ions content reduction, the NF process significantly changed the mineralogy composition of water. The permeate filtration (DK-NF membrane) on the CaCO3 deposit led to a correction of the hydrogeochemical type of water from chloridesodium to chloride-bicarbonate-sodium. The concentration of calcium ions was increased by 60.5% and was 28.2 mg/L, and bicarbonate ions by 7.78% (increased to 195 mg/L). Based on a morphological assessment of the deposits in the SEM image and their chemical composition, the presence of gypsum crystals was detected on the surface of the NF-270 membrane. The deposits formed on the NF-DK membrane were of a completely different character as aggregations of iron and aluminium oxides/hydroxides were found. Such significant mineralogical differences between the secondary deposits crystallising on the surface of the membranes point to the impact of several factors, including membrane characteristics, concentration polarisation, mass transport mechanisms, etc.

Open access

Ewa Tomaszewska, Piotr Dobrowolski, Małgorzata Kwiecień, Natalia Burmańczuk, Barbara Badzian, Sylwia Szymańczyk and Paulina Kurlak

Abstract

The aim of this study was to define the effects of diet containing the same mineral content of mineral salt or amino acid chelate, and diet containing various levels of Cu amino acid chelate on liver histomorphometry in growing rats. Male Wistar rats were used in the 12th week experiment. The control group (n = 12) was fed standard diet, which provided Cu in an inorganic form at the level required for rats. The experimental animals were divided into four groups (each n = 12) depending on different levels (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% covered daily demand) of Cu supplementation in chelated form. Cu content was determined in the liver tissue and blood plasma. Immunohistochemical staining with caspase-3 antibody was performed. Microscopic assessment of the liver structure indicated that Cu supplementation did not change the liver architecture. However, histomorphometric analysis revealed a significant increase in the number of nuclei, total cell number, and multinucleated hepatocytes in rats supplemented with the organic form of Cu at the level of 25% compared with the control group. There was a considerable increase in the number of apoptotic cells and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes, especially in groups supplemented with organic form of Cu covering the daily demand in 100% and 75%, in comparison to control group. Moreover, there was no Cu deposition in the liver and changes in Cu content in blood. Cu provided in the diet in organic form covering an amount of its minimum daily demand in 25% appears to be the least harmful with regard to the liver. It indicates that there is a need to establish the level of diet supplementation with Cu amino acid chelates.

Open access

Barbara Tomaszewska, Marta Dendys and Krzysztof Galos

Abstract

The KINDRA project is being implemented within the framework of the Horizon 2020 programme. Its main purpose is to carry out an EU-wide assessment of existing practical and scientific knowledge related to groundwater on the basis of an innovative classification system - the Hydrogeological Research Classification System (HRC-SYS). This assessment will be based on the knowledge repository, the European Inventory of Groundwater Research (EIGR). The EIGR database is also intended as a functional tool that will provide knowledge resources to be used by individuals and representatives of all institutions whose activities involve groundwater and water management. The purpose of this article is to outline the main assumptions underlying the KINDRA project and to present the methodology for creating the EIGR database, placing particular emphasis on the experience of experts who represent Poland. The materials and information they prepared as contributions to the EIGR have made it possible to review and evaluate the current state of the art as well as the publications resulting from the water management activities undertaken in Poland.