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Open access

Barbara Maćkiewicz and Cecylia Karalus-Wiatr

Abstract

The strong connection between urbanisation processes and the transformation of farmland into built-up areas - mostly residential - has already been tackled in the literature. Still, in Poland this process of farmland loss, generally thought to be irreversible, occurs in a specific, often irrational and not fully registered way. What is more, this development is favoured by legislation, especially rules controlling the exclusion of land from agricultural production and real-estate taxation. Among the many detrimental consequences of those regulations are incomes of communes lower than they should be. The problem tackled in the article is that of the exclusion from agricultural use of only fragments of geodetic lots on which building investments are going on. The cost of the exclusion and the difference in the rates of the agricultural tax and the real-estate tax very often result in the exclusion of only a part of a lot, while the rest of it is formally still in agricultural use, even though its owner does not conduct any agricultural activity there. In this case two taxes have to be paid from one lot: the real-estate tax, on the land taken out of agricultural use and the building erected on it, and another, the agricultural tax, on land that is still a piece of farmland. This situation, especially in areas undergoing rapid urban sprawl, is common in Poland and has unfavourable consequences for the incomes of communes. It also leads to a discrepancy between data from the real-estate cadastre and the actual area of land in agricultural use, which greatly hampers an exact measurement and control of the real losses of land performing the agricultural function, including that with high-quality soils. The conducted research demonstrated that in 2014 nearly 7% (927) of all geodetic lots in Rokietnica commune, situated in the immediate neighbourhood of Poznań, were builtup housing lots, mostly carrying detached single-family houses, with fragments of farmland. Almost a half (49.4%) of the total area of those lots, 42 ha, was still agricultural land in the real-estate cadastre and subject to taxation not by the real-estate tax, but the much lower agricultural tax. Because of this difference in the two taxes, the annual receipts of the commune budget are 186,601 zlotys (43,395 euro) lower. It also turned out that more than 50% of farmland on those lots (21.8 ha) was arable land of the good land-capability class III, which is high for the conditions in the Poznań agglomeration. This not only corroborates the findings of earlier studies highlighting significant losses of good-quality arable land taking place as a result of urban sprawl, but it also means that in the Polish conditions actual losses are much higher than would follow from records in the real-estate cadastre. It can also be stated that the Polish legal rules not only fail to adequately protect farmland situated within metropolitan areas, but even favour its excessive loss.

Open access

Maciej Składanowski, Paweł Jarosz and Barbara Mackiewicz

Abstract

Introduction. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) was first described by Hadorn as a measure of the lung function. The definition of PEFR established by the European Respiratory Society defines it as the maximal flow achieved during the phase of expiration, delivered with maximal force and starting from the maximal lung inflation level.

Aim. The authors of this study attempted at evaluating the variations of PEFR, taking into consideration the effects of one’s age, height Body Mass Index (BMI), Body Surface Area (BSA), seasons of the year and air pollution. Healthy adults living in urban areas were subjects of the study.

Material and methods. The study group consisted of some 179 healthy subjects, 102 women and 77 men, aged 18 to 66. Every patient’s medical history, including epidemiological, demographic data, as well as the information about the occurrence and symptoms of lung diseases, was taken from every patient. Only healthy subjects were selected for further analysis. Participants performed spirometry testing. Physical parameters were measured. Appropriate pollution data was obtained.

Results. The study group consisted of 179 patients (102 women and 77 men). There is a negative correlation between PEFR and age and a positive one between PEFR and height, as well as Body Surface Area and BMI (regarded as a quantitative, but not as a qualitative trait). There is a significant correlation between PEFR and PEFR adjusted by age, height and weight with seasons of the year. There is a statistically significant negative impact of NO2, SO2 and O3 24 h mean and hourly NO2 concentration on PEFR.

Conclusions. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate changes are also present in a healthy adult population. Prevalence of obesity is an important factor of the examined population.

Open access

Ewa Kacprzak and Barbara Maćkiewicz

Abstract

The pressure exerted by a large city determines non-agricultural forms of land use in areas situated in its neighbourhood. Among the most alarming consequences of urban sprawl onto the surrounding areas are a steady and irreversible shrinkage of farmland and conflicts resulting from a mix of functions performed by the areas. This article describes the dynamics, scale and spatial differences of the process of taking agricultural land out of production in the Poznań agglomeration in the 21st century in terms of changes in the land-use pattern. In characterising the converted land, it also presents chief directions of its transformation, the regulations in force, and the resultant lack of full information about factual, and not only partial, conversions.

Open access

Barbara Maćkiewicz, Raúl Puente Asuero and Krystyna Pawlak

Abstract

In this paper, we discuss the presence of community gardens in urban spaces and the types of activities performed there, using the city of Poznań as a case study. First, based on interviews with representatives of selected non-governmental organisations, analyses of available Internet sources as well as our own field research, cartographic and photographic documentation, we identify community gardens in the space of the city and explore their formation process. In the course of our study we also concentrate on the type of garden location. In addition, we devote our attention to the gardens which have disappeared from the fabric of the city. Our study reveals that community gardens currently operating in Poznań are established in non-central locations. These gardens are scattered in various parts of the city. Only in the Łazarz district there are two community gardens. Most frequently, community gardens are established on plots between old blocks of flats and tenement houses. Two gardens are located on underdeveloped greenery near the Warta River and in two city parks. A detailed examination of the events held in the community gardens in the Łazarz district in the years 2014–2017 shows that they had a very diversified character. Both of them turned out to be multifunctional, i.e. hosted meetings devoted to agriculture and horticulture, environmental education, artistic events, DIY and recreation. However, the percentage of events in the structure of the meetings organised in the gardens differed considerably.