Due to its durability, tungsten carbide has long been used as a material to produce dental burs. WC– Co burs are designed for smooth, efficient cutting and extended life. Dental burs are available in different sizes and shapes, for example round burs, pear and cylinder-shaped, egg-shaped, as well as there are various tapered ones, which enable an individual selection of the drill for the right treatment. Carbides can be used for standard crowns and bridges, for extensive surgical procedures and they should minimize damage to the existing teeth. The design of WC–Co dental bur reduces a patient’s discomfort because of the operating time and the fact that its liquidity is preserved. The head of the bur (the cutting edge) delivers optimum concentricity and strength. The shank is made from stainless steel allowing a bur to be autoclaved multiple times without the risk of corrosion. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the wear of a tungsten carbide dental bur. The results of stereoscopy microscope and SEM/EDS analysis are presented.
Nowadays, stainless steels are very interesting and promising materials with unique properties. They are characterized high mechanical strengths, high toughness and good corrosion resistance, so that can be used in many industrial sectors. An interesting alternative to steels obtained using the conventional methods is sintered stainless steel manufactured using the powder metallurgy technology. AISI 316L stainless steel is one of the best-known and widely used austenitic stainless steel. Modification of surface properties of stainless steels, in particular by applying the Cr3C2 coating is becoming more and more popular. The technique of atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) was used to deposit Cr3C2 - NiAl powder on stainless steel surface. In this study presents arc surface remelting of two types of stainless steel was used by GTAW method in order to improve function and usability these materials. The results of optical microscope metallographic, hardness and scratch test are presented. The main assumption for this study was to analyze the microstructure and hardness after remelting and alloying the surface of 316L steel (using GTAW method) with current intensity 50 A.
Aim of this paper is to present the properties of carbon preforms for the production of biomorphic composites. Carbon samples were obtained through pyrolysis of paulownia wood, replicating the microstructure of the cellulosic precursor. Many characterization methods such as Raman Spectroscopy, light microscopy, hardness tests and pore size analyzer detection were used to investigate the microstructure of the product as well as the pore size of carbon samples. Obtained results showed that the parts of early or late wood template play an important role in the pore size, specific surface area and pore volume of the product. This review aims to be a comprehensive description of the development of carbon chars: from wood templates and their microstructure to potential applications of biomorphic materials.
In the aerospace industry, passenger safety depends on proper quality control at each production stage. The main responsibility for the correct operation of the aircraft lies within a gas turbine. A proper and rigorous selection of the gas turbine construction material is required, and in a further step, the method of joining the construction parts. Nickel superalloys due to the high heat resistance, strength and creep resistance at high temperatures, toughness and corrosion resistance, are very often used for the construction of a gas turbine engine. In the next step, the selection of joining method is necessary. This method must be able to achieve high-quality connections, resistant to work at high temperatures and corrosive environments. The most effective bonding method that meets the above conditions is brazing. In this study non-destructive (visual) test and destructive (metallographic) test of brazed joint of Inconel 718 and Inconel 625 were conducted.
Increasingly, many conventional and advanced automotive coatings applications demand materials with well-defined surface properties, fulfilling specific requirements and affecting automotive industrial development. The main assumption for the study was to analyze the microstructure and adhesion of epoxy powder coating on a steel substrate. The results of optical microscope metallographic, SEM/EDX, XRD analysis and adhesion test are presented.
In this paper, the authors publish their own experimental results of the examination of the different holes (milled, drilled and drilled + shot peened) on the fatigue lifetime of 20MnV6 steel. The experiments were carried out at low-frequency loading (f = 10 Hz, pulsating tension loading) in the region from N = 2×105 up to N = 2×106 cycles. The best fatigue properties were obtained in the parts with drilled + shot peened holes.
Three-year studies on the influence of temperature on vegetative growth and growth of broccoli heads (Brassica oleracea var. italica cv. Fiesta) were carried out at the Experimental Station “Marcelin” of Poznań University of Life Sciences in Poland. The relationship between temperature sum day-degree, number and area of leaves as well as head diameter was estimated. Likewise relationship between number and area of leaves and head diameter was established. The correlations were described using linear, curvilinear and segment linear regression. The relationship between temperature sum day-degree and number of leaves was linear, whereas the correlation between temperature and area of leaves and head diameter was curves function. On the basis of segment linear regression it was found that in the period when slow growth of heads was observed (the size of up to about 1.5 cm), the area of leaves increased the fastest. It occurred between the 24th and 27th day after planting. The fastest growth of broccoli heads was noted, when the plant had about 18 leaves and area 4900 cm2. In the period of rapid head growth, the increase of sum temperature of 100 day-degree resulted in head diameter increase by 3.5 cm.
The clinical form of natural zearalenone intoxication was observed in sheep that were kept indoors and fed a constant diet of feed concentrates containing high concentrations of zearalenone and its metabolite α-zearalenol. The clinical form of the disease was not noted in the control group, consisting of sheep that were kept on a pasture from spring to late autumn; only in the winter they were fed wheat pellets, in which the zearalenone concentration was determined to be the lowest among all used feed concentrates. During the course of natural zearalenone intoxication, metabolism of arachidonic acid increased, mainly due to enzymes of the cyclooxygenase group, which are responsible for the generation of prostaglandin F2α and thromboxane B2, and an increase in their concentration. Increased production of F2α and B2 was closely correlated with the serum level of SAA, an indicator of the intensity of the inflammatory reaction. This indicates that both compounds participated in the development of inflammatory reactions in the terminal end of the digestive tract that accompanied zearalenone intoxication in sheep. The imbalances noted between the eicosanoid classes investigated in this study were fundamentally responsible for the development of clinical symptoms in sick sheep that showed symptoms of partial or total prolapse of the anus and rectum and prolapse of the large intestine, which were the direct cause of the animals death.