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Krzysztof Lubkowski and Barbara Grzmil

Controlled release fertilizers

The efficiency of nitrogen assimilation by plants is rather low and this is a serious problem in view of environmental protection. Improvement of nitrogen absorption can be carried out through the developing, producing and applying the controlled release fertilizers. Biodegradable chitosan has been proposed as an alternative material in the production of controlled release fertilizers.

Open access

Barbara Grzmil, Daniel Grela and Bogumił Kic

Effects of processing parameters on hydrolysis of TiOSO4

The influence of both TiOSO4 concentrations in the starting solution and a way of conducting hydrolysis on the degree of titanyl sulphate conversion to hydrated titanium dioxide were studied. Titanyl sulphate solution, an intermediate product in the commercial preparation of titanium dioxide pigments by sulphate method, was used. The continuous method of conducting hydrolysis was applied using one or two reactors connected in series. It was found that the degree of hydrolysis markedly depends on the studied parameters. It was also found that TiOSO4 hydrolysis using the continuous method should be conducted: i) at a possibly low concentration of free sulfuric acid in the solution and; ii) in two or more rectors connected in series.

Open access

Agnieszka Wołosiak-Hnat, Eugeniusz Milchert, Grzegorz Lewandowski and Barbara Grzmil

Influence of reduction time of copper based catalysts: Cu/Al2O3 and CuCr2O4 on hydrogenolysis of glycerol

High activity of copper based catalysts for C-O bond hydro-dehydrogenation and their poor activity for C-C bond cleavage1 have prompted an attempt to apply such catalysts in the hydrogenolysis of glycerol to 1,2- and 1,3-propanediol. In the present study the influence of hydrogen reduction time of the Cu/Al2O3 and CuCr2O4 copper catalysts on glycerol conversion and selectivity of transformation to propanediols and by-products was studied. At first a general comparison was made between the commercial catalysts and those prepared by the co-precipitation method. As better results were obtained in the presence of catalysts prepared by co-precipitation, they were selected for further detailed studies of the influence of reduction time. For both prepared catalysts Cu/Al2O3 and CuCr2O4 the reduction time of 8 h was optimal. In the presence of Cu/Al2O3 catalyst the conversion of glycerol was 59.0%, selectivity of transformation to 1,2-propanediol 77.4% and selectivity to 1,3-propanediol 1.9%. In the presence of CuCr2O4 the glycerol conversion was 30.3% and selectivity to 1,2-propanediol 67.3%.

Open access

Barbara Grzmil, Bogumił Kic, Olga Żurek and Konrad Kubiak

Studies on the transformation of calcium sulphate dihydrate to hemihydrate in the wet process phosphoric acid production

The influence of the process temperature from 85°C to 95°C, the content of phosphates and sulphates in the wet process phosphoric acid (about 22-36 wt% P2O5 and about 2-9 wt% SO4 2-) and the addition of αCaSO4·0.5H2O crystallization nuclei (from 10% to 50% in relation to CaSO4·2H2O) on the transformation of calcium sulphate dihydrate to hemihydrate has been determined. The wet process phosphoric acid and phosphogypsum from the industrial plant was utilized. They were produced by reacting sulphuric acid with phosphate rock (Tunisia) in the DH-process. The X-ray diffraction analysis was used to determine the phase composition and fractions of various forms of calcium sulphates in the samples and the degree of conversion of CaSO4·2H2O to αCaSO4·0.5H2O and CaSO4. It was found that the transformation of CaSO4·2H2O to αCaSO4·0.5H2O should be carried out in the presence of αCaSO4·0.5H2O crystallization nuclei as an additive (in the amount of 20% in relation to CaSO4·2H2O), at temperatures 90±2°C, in the wet process phosphoric acid containing the sulphates and phosphates in the range of 4±1 wt% and 27±1 wt%, respectively.

Open access

Agnieszka Wróblewska, Joanna Wajzberg, Eugeniusz Milchert, Barbara Grzmil and Janusz Ziebro

The pressure method of 1-butene-3-ol epoxidation over Ti-beta catalyst

The investigations of 1-buten-3-ol (1B3O) epoxidation by 30% hydrogen peroxide over Ti-Beta catalyst were performed. The experiments were carried out under the autogenic pressure and at the presence of methanol as a solvent. The influence of the following technological parameters on the course of epoxidation: temperature (20 - 120°C), the molar ratio of 1B3O/H2O2 (0.5:1 - 5:1), methanol concentration (5 - 90 wt%.), Ti-Beta concentration (0.1 - 5.0 wt%) and the reaction time (0.5 - 5.0 h) was investigated. The main functions describing the process were: the selectivity of transformation to 1,2-epokxy-3-butanol in relation to 1B3O consumed, conversions of substrates as well as the selectivity of transformation to organic compounds in relation hydrogen peroxide consumed.

Open access

Beata Wawrzyniak, Magdalena Janus, Barbara Grzmil and Antoni Morawski

Preparation of the TiO2 photocatalyst using pressurized ammonia

The industrial hydrated amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO2ċ xH2O) was modified by treatment inside a chemical reactor under elevated pressure at low temperatures for 4 hours in an ammonia atmosphere. On the basis of the FTIR/DRS analysis the presence of nitrogen was confirmed. The XRD patterns of all of the catalysts exhibit mainly the diffraction lines of anatase phases. The photocatalytic activity of the modified photocatalysts was determined and compared to TiO2-P25 (Degussa, Germany). The high rate of phenol and dye degradation was obtained for the catalysts modified at 180°/15atm. TiO2-P25 showed similar activity in phenol decomposition like TiO2-15bar, whereas it was more active in dye decomposition.

Open access

Barbara Grzmil, Daniel Grela, Bogumił Kic and Marcin Podsiadły

The influence of admixtures on the course of hydrolysis of titanyl sulfate

The study focused on the question how admixtures, such as iron(II), iron(III), magnesium and aluminium salts influence the degree of TiOSO4 conversion to hydrated titanium dioxide (HTD). Titanyl sulfate solution, an intermediate product in the industrial preparation of titanium dioxide pigments by sulfate route was used. The admixtures were added to the solution and their concentration was gradually changed. It was found that hydrolysis clearly depended on Fe(II) and Fe(III) concentrations. The higher the concentration of iron(II) (up to 5 wt %) in the solution was, the higher conversion degree was achieved. A reverse relationship was observed concerning the influence of iron(III) introduced up to 1.5 wt %. The constant rates of both phases of titanyl sulfate hydrolysis (including the formation of an intermediate colloidal TiO2 and final products) depended on iron(II) and iron(III) content in the solution. The concentration of other constituents did not influence hydrolysis in the investigated part of the process (up to 2.6 wt % of Mg and up to 0.3 wt % of Al). However, the size of primary particles of the obtained TiO2·nH2O did not depend on the content of the above-mentioned constituents in the solution.

Open access

Agata Markowska-Szczupak, Krzysztof Ulfig, Barbara Grzmil and Antoni Morawski

A preliminary study on antifungal effect of TiO2-based paints in natural indoor light

The antifungal activity of four commercial photocatalytic paints (KEIM Ecosil ME, Titanium FA, Photo Silicate and Silicate D) in natural indoor light was investigated. The paints contained TiO2 in rutile and anatase crystalline forms as evidenced by means of the X-ray diffraction analysis. In most cases the paints inhibited growth of fungi viz. Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger, Coonemeria crustacea, Eurotium herbariorum, and Dactylomyces sp. The KEIM Ecosil ME paint displayed the highest antifungal effect in the light, which could be explained with the highest anatase content. The paint antifungal activity and the fungal sensitivity to the TiO2-mediated photocatalytic reaction both decreased in the following orders: KEIM Ecosil ME > Titanium FA > Photo Silicate > Silicate D and T. viride > Dactylomyces sp. > A. niger > E. herbariorum.

Open access

Agnieszka Wróblewska, Anna Fajdek, Eugeniusz Milchert and Barbara Grzmil

The Ti-MWW catalyst - its characteristic and catalytic properties in the epoxidation of allyl alcohol by hydrogen peroxide

Ti-MWW, one of the latest titanium-silicalite catalysts, has been prepared by direct hydrothermal synthesis using hexamethyleneimine as a structure-directing agent. The characteristic of the catalyst was performed by means of the following methods: XRD, SEM, IR, UV-vis and X'Ray microanalysis. The catalytic properties of Ti-MWW have been compared with those of the conventional titanium-silicalites TS-1 and TS-2 in the epoxidation of allyl alcohol with hydrogen peroxide. The process has been described by the following main functions: the selectivity of the transformation to glycidol in relation to allyl alcohol consumed, the conversions of the substrates (allyl alcohol and hydrogen peroxide) and the selectivity of the transformation to organic compounds in relation to hydrogen peroxide consumed.

Open access

Katarzyna Przywecka, Barbara Grzmil and Krzysztof Kowalczyk


Many studies have been carried out in the direction of improvement of the effectiveness of commonly utilized phosphate corrosion inhibitors. For this purpose various types of modifications are realized, e.g. introduction of different cations to the pigment composition or replacement of phosphate anions with others. In the presented work, anticorrosive pigments containing calcium hydrogen phosphate, and/or calcium hydroxyphosphate, and calcium molybdate were obtained. The phase and chemical composition and the oil absorption number of those materials were determined. The anticorrosive properties were investigated by an electrochemical noise method. The obtained results were compared with previously published studies concerning pigments containing (NH4)3Al2(PO4)3 and/or AlPO4, and CaMoO4. It was found that the pigment containing only calcium molybdate(VI) is not an effective corrosion inhibitor. However, the pigments comprising a mixture of CaHPO4 and CaMoO4 exhibited good anticorrosive properties and they were characterized by higher effectiveness in the corrosion protection than compared materials.