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  • Author: Barbara Długołȩcka x
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Open access

Jan Czeczelewski, Barbara Długołęcka and Barbara Raczyńska

Intake of Calcium and Phosphorus and Levels of Bone Mineralization (BMC) and Mineral Bone Density (BMD) of Female Swimmers in the Pubescence Period

The objective of this study was to evaluate bone mineralization (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the osseous tissue in girls training swimming an being in the period of reaching the peak bone mass, as compared to girls being at a similar age and non-practicing sport, taking into account dietary allowances for calcium and phosphorus and dietary ratios of these elements.

Both the swimmers and their non-training colleagues were found to meet nutritional demands to the same extent and their diets did not differ in the intakes of energy nor nutrients (protein, calcium, phosphorus), which is incorrect in the case of the non-training girls. An alarmingly low intake of calcium at a, simultaneously, excessive intake of protein and phosphorus, as well as incorrect ratios between calcium and phosphorus and between calcium and protein observed especially in the case of the swimmers, might have an adverse effect on the mineralization of osseous tissue in the period of reaching peak bone mass.

Open access

Barbara Długołęcka, Ewa Jówko, Jan Czeczelewski, Igor Cieśliński and Andrzej Klusiewicz

Abstract

Introduction. The study sought to assess bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in men with different levels of physical activity during the period of reaching peak bone mass

Material and methods. The research included wrestlers (n = 31) and students of the University of Physical Education (n = 88) aged 18-24. The state of the bone tissue was assessed with the use of the bone densitometry (DEXA) method (lumbar spine L2-L4). Data concerning the physical activity levels and nutritional behaviours of the study participants were gathered in a diagnostic survey carried out using a specially prepared questionnaire.

Results. The analysis of the results revealed that as there were no statistically significant differences in nutritional behaviours between men from particular groups, physical activity proved to be the factor which significantly differentiated the groups under investigation in terms of their bone mass. The highest mean values of the bone parameters analysed were achieved by the wrestlers, who demonstrated a high level of physical activity.

Open access

Agnieszka Wasiluk, Jerzy Saczuk, Jan Czeczelewski, Barbara Długołȩcka and Ewa Czeczelewska

Abstract

Introduction. TIn a situation characterized by a low birth rate and a highly competitive education market, increasing attention is currently being paid not only to students' level of education, but also to their competencies and predisposition. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to analyze differences in morphological features among physical education students as compared with students of other subjects at the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport (WWFiS) in Biała Podlaska. Material and methods. This study is based on anthropometric data from 165 first-year female students at WWFiS in Biała Podlaska. Analysis was conducted on a selection of students divided into groups based on their study profile. Using the technique developed by Martin and Saller, measurements were taken of the anthropometric features required to determine BMI and WHR indexes and to estimate body tissue composition. The following were used to characterize the collected variables: sample size (n) arithmetic mean ( ) and standard deviation (SD). Differences among the groups with regard to the features being measured were assessed using ANOVA variation analysis and NIR testing. Results. The study did not confirm reports from other authors concerning analysis of connections between bodily structure and education profile. Thus, it should be concluded that a student's physique plays only a small role in their being selected to study physical education. Conclusions. The differences noted between the groups should rather be interpreted as owing to environmental differences in the lifestyles of the girls in question, rather than to recruitment procedures and, by extension, education profile.

Open access

Andrzej Klusiewicz, łukasz Zubik, Barbara Długołęcka and Małgorzata Charmas

Abstract

Introduction. The objective of the study was to determine the maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax) of highly trained male and female athletes competing in endurance sports and of non-training students of both sexes. Analysis was conducted of the dependence of PImax levels on somatic indices and training experience. The reproducibility of the method for measuring PImax index was determined. Material and methods. The study examined a total of 234 training and non-training individuals (78 women and 156 men). The test subjects were measured for PImax, as well as inspiratory time, active time, passive time and diaphragm relaxation time. A group of 59 women and men (training and non-training) were tested a second time within 5-7 days of the first test to determine the reproducibility of the PImax measurements. Results and conclusion. The measurements were found to be highly reproducible (between the first and second tests no statistically significant differences were found, all spirometric indices included in the study were shown to demonstrate a significant correlation, and total error for all of the analyzed indexes was between 11.1 and 24.3%). Reference ranges for PImax were determined for women and men at different training levels. PImax was shown to have a positive dependence on somatic indices characterizing male and female body mass.

Open access

Andrzej Klusiewicz, Michał Starczewski, Maria Ładyga, Barbara Długołęcka, Wojciech Braksator, Artur Mamcarz and Dariusz Sitkowski

Abstract

The aim of this study was to characterize changes in maximal oxygen uptake over several years and to elaborate current reference values of this index based on determinations carried out in large and representative groups of top Polish rowers. For this study 81 female and 159 male rowers from the sub-junior to senior categories were recruited from the Polish National Team and its direct backup. All the subjects performed an incremental exercise test on a rowing ergometer. During the test maximal oxygen uptake was measured with the BxB method. The calculated reference values for elite Polish junior and U23 rowers allowed to evaluate the athletes’ fitness level against the respective reference group and may aid the coach in controlling the training process. Mean values of VO2max achieved by members of the top Polish rowing crews who over the last five years competed in the Olympic Games or World Championships were also presented. The results of the research on the “trainability” of the maximal oxygen uptake may lead to a conclusion that the growth rate of the index is larger in case of high-level athletes and that the index (in absolute values) increases significantly between the age of 19-22 years (U23 category).

Open access

Benedykt H. Opaszowski, Zbigniew Tyc, Zbigniew Obmiński, Tomasz Danielik, Marcin Korkuć and Barbara Długołȩcka

Abstract

Introduction. The aim of the study is to evaluate the metabolic and hormonal response of soccer players to maximum effort (test for determining anaerobic threshold changes - PPA) carried out under field conditions within a training cycle, which included a preparation period of about 7 weeks. Materials and methods. In blood samples of the 20 subjects the concentrations of lactate was determined, (LA) in whole blood, also including cortisol (C), testosterone (T) and growth hormone (GH) in blood plasma, during a running exercise performed according to the formula for determination of PPA. The heart rate (HR) was recorded during the running exercise. Threshold speed was determined based on OBLA. The tests were carried out twice: at the beginning and at the end of the seventh week preparatory period. Results. The training increased the threshold speed by an average of 0.4 m/s, lower concentrations of LA during the second test and less severe changes in HR. Endurance of the tested athletes increased at more favourable hormonal response with respect to cortisol nd and GH. The endurance component in the training, in the 2nd test resulted in lower resting testosterone levels, which did not affect the metabolic balance. The ratio of testosterone to cortisol (T/C), its growth after the period of training, showed a more stable anabolic-catabolic balance, which justifies the validity of the training assumptions in this period. Conclusions. The study confirmed the usefulness of metabolic-endocrine indicators in the monitoring the physiological response of athletes to exercise, as well as beneficial changes in the process of adaptation of bodies of athletes subjected to training.

Open access

Małgorzata P. Majewska, Jan Rawa, Janusz J. Pająk, Jacek Skomiał, Zofia Długołęcka and Barbara Kowalik

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of various forms of sunflower oil in the diet with protein degraded at different rates in the rumen on pancreatic juice secretion and activity. The experiment was conducted on 24 adult Corriedale rams weighing about 40 ± 1.5 kg, catheterized in the pancreatic and bile ducts and fistulated in the duodenum. The animals were fed diets consisting of meadow hay, potato starch, different degradable protein (casein or maize gluten, a source of zein) and different forms of sunflower oil (calcium salts, seeds and oil). It was stated that addition of various forms of fat to the diet did not significantly influence the secretion of pancreatic juice, regardless of the source of protein. However, sunflower seeds and oil used in the diet had a significant effect on bile secretion, protein content, proteolytic activity of trypsin and plasma lipid indices. No significant differences were observed in the lipolytic activity of the pancreatic juice, although lipase activity was higher when zein was used as the main protein source. It was concluded that dietary addition of certain combinations of protected or unprotected sunflower oil and different degradable protein may improve pancreatic activity and probably affect plasma lipid indices in sheep.

Open access

Andrzej Klusiewicz, Mariusz Szumański, Kajda Piotr, Janina Starczewska-Czapowska, Krystyna Burkhard-Jagodzińska, Barbara Długołęcka and Dariusz Sitkowski

Abstract

Introduction. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in the physical capacity of a group of leading Polish young male rowers after they completed the annual training cycle.

Material and methods. The study involved 30 subjects who either belonged to the Under-23 Polish National Rowing Team or were its reserve rowers. The subjects underwent two stress tests: a maximum intensity test simulating covering the distance of a regatta (the 2 km test) and a submaximal test with a gradual increase in intensity (the anaerobic threshold test) before and after the annual training cycle.

Results. Contrary to what was expected, a year of training did not cause a significant increase in the work capacity indicators measured in the study. The training programme that was implemented was found not to have been very effective in this respect. No statistically significant increase was observed in the values obtained for the subjects in the test simulating covering the distance of the race, although there was some improvement.

Conclusions. Similar findings, indicating that the results of stress tests tend to remain stable, were obtained by other authors whose research involved young rowers aged approximately 20 years. However, we would still like to emphasise that the effectiveness of training which develops endurance, the basic foundation for a rower’s successful performance, should be paid more attention to in the training process.

Open access

Andrzej Klusiewicz, Łukasz Zubik, Barbara Długołęcka, Małgorzata Charmas, Jerzy Broniec, Benedykt Henryk Opaszowski, Michał Starczewski and Maria Ładyga

Abstract

Introduction. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of an 8-week endurance training program on the functional status of the respiratory muscles and breathing efficiency.

Material and methods. Thirteen healthy, untrained, male students of Physical Education volunteered to participate in the study. Before and after the subjects completed the training program, they were subjected to anthropometric and spirometric measurements, and performed an incremental stress test. The spirometric measurements included maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax), active time, passive time, and diaphragm relaxation time. Measuring PImax is a simple method of evaluating the strength of the inspiratory muscles. The 8-week training program was performed on a rowing ergometer 3 times per week, using aerobic workloads.

Results. The study did not confirm a significant improvement in the measured spirometric parameters following the training program. However, we observed a trend of increase in PImax values by 12 ± 21% of borderline after the training program and a significant correlation (p < 0.05) between the changes in PImax and those in VO2 max. Following the training there was also a significant reduction in the amount of body fat by 1.4 kg and an improvement of work capacity. The response of the respiratory system to exercise was also enhanced, as breathing efficiency improved (tidal volume increased in maximal exercise, while lung ventilation, the ventilatory equivalent for oxygen, and breathing frequency decreased in submaximal exercise).

Conclusions. The findings of the study suggest that traditional endurance training which is implemented over a 8 weeks is not a sufficiently strong stimulus to cause a significant increase in the strength of the inspiratory muscles.