Productivity Changes in the European Union: Structural and Competitive Aspects
There are many factors influencing the level and changes of the labour productivity. One of the useful methods of identifying these factors is shift-share approach. It makes it possible to determine if the sectoral structure or the level of competitiveness of the economy affects the dynamics and differentiation of labour productivity. The research concerned countries of the European Union, covered the period of 1999-2006 and was conducted for six main economic sectors. All examined countries were characterized by constant growth of labour productivity which was mainly caused by the increasing productivity in market financial services. The basic reason of productivity diversification was a country's competitiveness. The positive relation between sectoral structure and regional component also occurred.
Models With Varying Parameters as A Tool to Classify Polish Voivodships in 2002-2008
One of the often used measures of economic development is gross domestic product per capita. In Poland the Main Statistical Office collects the data on this variable on several levels of aggregation. The paper shows the application of panel data models in order to classify Polish voivodships according to the level of economic development. As explained variable the regional GDP per capita was used and such variables as structure of employees, unemployment rate or retail sales per capita were the explaining variables. As a result the groups of voivodships with similar pattern of economic development were distinguished.
Barbara Batóg, Jacek Batóg and Magdalena Mojsiewicz
Application of Kernel Estimation in Analysis of Labour Productivity of the Largest Polish Firms in 2004-2008
The parametric methods of statistical and econometric analysis are not always useful in examination of labour productivity of economic entities. In previous works the Authors found that the labour productivity is characterized by the lack of stable regularities in the range of structure and interdependency. In that case it is possible to apply non-parametric methods. In the paper the Authors tried to model the distributions of the labour productivity in time by means of kernel estimation using classical approaches (Epanechnikov, Rosenblatt) and the new proposition called kernel B. It seems that proposed approach is a useful merger of the statistical modeling theory and economic practice which allows to analyze the changes in the labour productivity - the essential factor for long-term economic growth and the welfare of society. The empirical results show that the labour productivity in the largest Polish companies had increased in 2004-2008 but the growths had not the same dynamics in different economic sectors.
The creation of an effective growth policy requires the identification of its key determinants. The study used one of the methods of multidimensional analysis – discriminant analysis. It is widely used on a microeconomic scale, especially in the area of forecasting bankruptcy of enterprises, but in the area of economic growth, it has not been used in practice so far. In addition to the main objective of identifying the most important economic growth factors of the European Union countries in 2000-2016, the impact of the crisis and accession to the EU was examined. The statistical data sources were the databases of Eurostat and the Conference Board (Total Economy Database). The results obtained allowed us to conclude that the rate of Gross Domestic Product growth in the EU countries was determined by consumption, investment, export and labour productivity, and in periods of economic slowdown also public debt. The enlargement of the EU resulted in an increase in the importance of export.
Magdalena Mojsiewicz, Barbara Batóg and Katarzyna Wawrzyniak
Application of Factor Analysis in Behavioral Segmentation on the Base of Semiometric Scale
The main aim of the paper is to present the methodological basis of market segmentation which uses not only demographic-social attributes and preferences but also variables defining values with important meaning in personal life of customers. The construction of a psychometric test is discussed on the basis of the example of a semiometric scale. This test uses principal components analysis in order to distinguish the main dimensions of cultural dichotomies. The example of measurement on the semiometric scale comes from the examination of preferences in the range of the life and medical insurances.