Barbara Niedorys, Monika Mikos, Katarzyna Kocka and Barbara Ślusarska
Introduction. The development of mass media, including an Internet has a significant impact on the lifestyle of young people. Despite of universal access and countless opportunities offered via Internet, an increasingly common phenomenon observed for several years is the excessive use of networks by young people, which can lead to Internet addiction.
Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of the Internet addiction in a group of junior high school students and high school students and selected conditions of this state.
Material and methods. The applied research method was a diagnostic survey, and the following tools: the Kimberly Young’s Internet Addiction Test and the authors’ self-designed survey. The study covered 263 junior high school and high school students. The research was carried out from April to June 2018.
Results. The Internet addiction was observed in 11% of the surveyed students. The use of social networking sites was the most common reason for using the Internet among surveyed (95%). The health problems associated with the long time of using the network of addicted students were general fatigue (61%) and lack of sleep (61%). Students addicted to the Internet much more often felt lonely (61%), depressed, upset or sad (n = 22, 78.6%) in contrast to other respondents.
Conclusions. Demographic variables (such as: sex, type of school, place of residence) have no significant impact on the development of Internet addiction. Psychosocial functioning has an impact on the development of the Internet addiction.
Barbara Ślusarska, Ewa Łochowska, Honorata Piasecka, Katarzyna Szczekala and Grzegorz Józef Nowicki
Introduction. Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer in women in Poland. Health behaviors concerning lifestyle and breast self-examination (BSE) constitute a significant element of early prevention.
Aim. To determine the level of the women’s health behaviors and selected determinants in breast cancer prevention.
Material and methods. The study was carried out among 144 female residents of Radom County from March to April, 2014. The diagnostic survey method was applied with an author’s questionnaire compiled for this purpose.
Results. The average level of health behavior was presented by 64.6 % of the women while the low level by 32.6 %. The evaluation of awareness of risk factors and breast cancer prevention revealed that 54.9% of the respondents obtained the maximum score. The lowest result equals 19.3 % whereas the highest one is 88.6%. The total of 53.5 % of the females declared embarrassment on clinical breast examination (CBE).
Conclusions. A higher level of health behaviors is found in the women with higher education and greater knowledge of breast cancer risk factors. The respondents who experience greater embarrassment during clinical breast examination present a lower level of health behaviors
Anna Sykut, Barbara Ślusarska, Bernadeta Jędrzejkiewicz and Grzegorz Nowicki
Aim. The aim of the study was to analyze determinants of the sleep disorders in adults and their health consequences based on the literature review.
Material and methods. The method of systematic analysis of literature was applied for the study. The literature review by keywords was based on the data from the Google Scholar web search databases, EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS) search engines, Arianta scientific and industry journals, and information from the years 2010-2017 available on the website.
Results. Poor quality of sleep and too few sleep hours can be both a consequence and a cause of overweight and obesity. Such phenomena cause adverse changes in the endocrine system - in the form of hormonal imbalance affecting appetite, blood glucose level and the development of insulin resistance, what in turn, leads to disease development. It is, therefore, necessary to educate patients about proper sleep hygiene, reducing excessive body weight and developing healthy eating habits.
Conclusions. There is a relationship between sleep disorders together with eating disorders and somatic diseases. Sleep disorders can predispose to obesity, adversely affect the carbohydrate balance, causing increased insulin resistance and increased chance of developing type 2 diabetes, as well as numerous cardiovascular diseases.
Danuta Zarzycka, Barbara Ślusarska, Beata Dobrowolska, Alina Deluga, Alina Trojanowska and Elżbieta Bartoń
Introduction. In the subject literature there were five conceptual dimensions of empathy defined which were specified as a human trait, the basis of professional work, communication process, a manifestation of concern and the special relations. Empathy is the essence of understanding the other person in nursing. The empathic competences have a significant meaning for building caring and therapeutic relations in the work of nurses.
Aim. An indication of the essence of empathy in nursing in the aspect of theoretical assumptions and practical activities together with its selected empirical determinants.
Method. Topic and unsystematic review of literature looking at the last 30 years. The analysis carried out by the authors of the research included 55 sources.
Results. The study of empathy in nursing quite often used the concept formulated by Neuman team and a definition of empathy coined by Mercer and Reynolds, resulting from the concept : “Empathy involves ability (…) (a) to understand the perspective of patient’s situation and feelings and related meanings; (b) conveying information about understanding patient’s state and checking their determinants; and (c) to act within the closeness agreement with a patient in the way consistent with the therapeutic assumptions. Research studies indicate that nurses in general have quite high levels of empathy which positively influences the process of communication with patients and their families and dealing with patients who have psychosocial problems.
Summary. Empathy model most often used in nursing is based on the relations in the communication process. Empathy has positive influence over the quality of relations between nurses and patients, as well as the quality of nursing care. The empathic competences of nurses require system education and professional development with use of training and other active forms.
Barbara Ślusarska, Danuta Zarzycka, Anna Majda and Beata Dobrowolska
Introduction. The ongoing process of globalisation is contributing to the reconfiguration of social behaviour, even in small and relatively stable communities. The increased migration of people has led to more-varied groups of patients. The provision of nursing care which is consistent with a given culture, and adjusted to the particular needs of its recipient, is becoming a necessity. The development of cultural competence in the nurse's education, aimed at responding to the needs and demands of the global community, constitutes a current challenge for nursing.
Aim. The aim of this paper is to describe the assumptions put forward within the selected theoretical models of transcultural nursing, the nurses' cultural competences arising from them, and the possibility of their scientific evaluation.
Method. A non-systematic review of the literature based on the thematic selection of content and authors.
Results. The paper presents four basic theories and theoretical models of transcultural nursing which are well described in the literature on nursing, i.e. theories by M. Leininger, L. Purnell, J. Campinha-Bacote, J.N. Giger and R.E. Davidhizar, and their related cultural competences. The theoretical models constitute a foundation for the provision of nursing care to various populations, providing resources to overcome obstacles and challenges in situations where nurses care for patients with various cultural backgrounds. The article also presents the most important tools for the assessment of cultural competences based on the basic theoretical models of transcultural nursing.
Conclusions. Cultural competences in nursing set the direction for investment in self-development for both nurses-theorists and nursing practitioners. Understanding the components of cultural competences and their assessment plays an important and necessary role in the implementation of the concept of multiculturalism in nursing.
Agnieszka Chrzan-Rodak, Barbara Ślusarska, Grzegorz Nowicki, Marlena Ogórek, Danuta Zarzycka, Barbara Niedorys and Ewelina Dziedzic
Introduction. Social competence is a soft skill that allows, among other things, for better communication with the patient, establishing and maintaining a therapeutic relationship and motivation of the patient. Social competence is a guarantee of care quality and a high level of satisfaction of the patient and his or her family, when it comes to the care provided. Social competence also has a positive impact on nurses, because it is a factor protecting them from burning out, and facilitating cooperation in the therapeutic team.
Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the level of social competence of professionally active nurses as well as to determine relationship between social competence and selected socio-demographic and work-related factors.
Material and methods. The present study included 291 nurses from the economically active population, aged from 23 to 63 years. Diagnostic survey and Social Competence Questionnaire by Anna Matczak (SCQ) were used in this study.
Results. As many as 37.8% of participating nurses demonstrated high levels of social competence (7th-10th sten) in intimate situations. Average levels (5th-6th sten) were characteristic for 40.5% of respondents in social exposure situations. When it comes to social competence in situations requiring assertiveness they were typically at average level (5th-6th sten) with 39.9% of nurses fitting this score. The overall result for social competence of nurses was low (36.1% of respondents) and average (34.4%). Place of residents and the postgraduate education were among the socio-demographic factors that determined significantly higher levels of social competence among nurses.
Conclusions. Nurses represent low and average levels of social competence. There is a further need for research on social competence among nurses and implementation of training programs that will help them develop higher levels social skills.
Alina Deluga, Paulina Bogdańska, Beata Dobrowolska, Barbara Ślusarska, Agnieszka Bartoszek and Katarzyna Szczekala
Introduction. Health locus of control is an essential factor affecting lifestyle which plays a major role in choosing health behaviours by individuals including young ones.
Aim. The aim of the study was the determination of selected conditions of health control and health behaviours in students of health sciences.
Material and methods. The study encompassed 175 students of health sciences at the Medical University of Lublin. The multidimensional health locus of control scale (MHLC), version B, by Z. Juczyński was applied as it measures expectations in three dimensions of health control: internal, external (influence of others) and chance. A special authors’ questionnaire compiled for the purpose was used to assess health behaviours.
Results. The results of the study show that the internal dimension of health control (25.86 points) has the greatest impact on health in the group studied. The oldest study participants dwelling in the countryside gave this dimension a higher ranking than other study participants. For the students health behaviours included fastening seat belts, healthy nutrition and doing sports.
Conclusions. The internal dimension of health control constitutes an essential factor determining health behaviours of the study participants. The students who are not able to assess whether they are healthy individuals, significantly more frequently perceive the greatest influence of others on their health.
Grzegorz Józef Nowicki, Barbara Ślusarska, Ewa Rudnicka-Drożak, Anna Wiśniewska, Bernadeta Jędrzejkiewicz, Kamil Pielaszkiewicz and Aleksandra Sekut
Aim. Determination of health behaviors in the group of people performing medical and non-medical professions.
Material and methods. The research covered 598 individuals divided into two groups: those performing medical professions (group M, n = 305) and non-medical (group P; n = 293). Standardized tools were used: Health Behavior Inventory, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale - version B, General Self-Efficacy Scale on risk factors and prevention of civilization diseases (own authorship). The controls were subjected to measurement of blood pressure as well as their height and body mass tests.
Results. In group M, the level of self-efficacy, the location of health control in terms of the influence of the others and the chance, age, incidence of cardiovascular diseases in the father, smoking and the level of mean systolic blood pressure explain 17.5% of the variability of health behavior. In group P, the level of self-efficacy, location of health control in terms of the influence of the others and the chance, monthly net income per a family member, the occurrence of neoplasms in siblings, smoking, average blood pressure and the level of knowledge about risk factors and prevention of civilization diseases explain 27.9% of the variance of the health behavior variable.
Conclusions. There is a diversification of selected determinants of health behaviors in the group of individuals performing medical and non-medical professions, with their stronger impact on non-medical professionals (17.5% vs. 27.9% of their variability).