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Rajeev Bansal and Samir Das

Analytical Solution for Transient Hydraulic Head, Flow Rate and Volumetric Exchange in an Aquifer Under Recharge Condition

This paper presents closed form solution for unsteady flow equation corresponding to the transient hydraulic head, flow rate and volumetric exchange of a confined aquifer which is in contact with a constant piezometric head at one end and a stream whose water level is rising at a constant rate at the other end. The aquifer is also subjected to receive constant inflow due to rain infiltration. The unsteady groundwater flow equation is solved using Laplace transform to get analytical expressions for the transient hydraulic head and flow rate at the left and right interfaces and the net volumetric exchange of water at the aquifer-stream interface. The analytical results presented here show the effect of recharge due to rain infiltration on the net volumetric exchange and reveal the conditions for which net inflow in the aquifer could be positive, negative or zero. The results obtained have the capability to determine transient hydraulic head for two extreme scenarios: (i) very slow rise and (ii) very fast rise in the stream water. Analytical result show that the net volumetric exchange could be positive, zero or negative depending on the surface infiltration and stream water rise rate.

Open access

Dudi Maniram, Bansal Rajeev, Srivastava Trilochan and R.V. Sardana

Abstract

We report a case where acute onset cortical blindness is the mode of presentation in Moyamoya disease. Cortical blindness is very rare presenting symptom of Moyamoya disease. Progressive visual loss and homonymous anopsia has been described previously, but this case had acute visual loss.

Open access

Pateriya Anurag, Bansal Rajeev and Mittal Radheyshyam

Abstract

Introduction. Posterior fossa extradural hematomas (PFEDHs) are uncommon as compared to supratentorial EDH and these patients can deteriorate very rapidly due to compression over brainstem. Thus early identification and intervention can save the lives of these patients.

Methods. We prospectively studied 114 patients of posterior fossa injury for mode of injury, neurological status during admission, radiological findings, management, and outcomes of patients suffered posterior fossa extradural hematoma. All statistical analyses were determined using the SPSS 22.0.0.0 version. Statistical analysis was conducted utilizing Chi-square test.

Results. Out of 114 posterior fossa trauma patients 28 patients (24.56%) having posterior fossa EDH. GCS on admission (p value=0.002), volume of posterior fossa EDH (p value= 0.000) were significant factors for the outcome of posterior fossa EDHs. On comparing the data patients who survived and those who did not survive, the GCS on admission (p value=0.004) and brain stem compression (p value=0.000) were two factors found to affect the mortality significantly.

Conclusion. Early detection with high degree of suspicion and immediate evacuation of PFEDHs should be done if causing fourth ventricle, basal cistern or brain stem compression.

Open access

Mukesh Sharma, R.S. Mittal, Rajeev Bansal and Achal Sharma

Abstract

Aim: In this study, symptoms at presentation, indication for surgery, surgical treatment modalities, postoperative results and complications were studied.

Material and methods: We retrospectively compiled the details of patients with IAC from admission and operative records admitted through our OPD during the period between January 1995 and January 2015. Only those patients were admitted whose symptoms attributes to the cyst and asymptomatic patients were followed on OPD basis. This is a single institutional study.

Results: This study includes 56 patients of IAC who were operated. Posterior fossa cysts (62.5%) were found more commonly symptomatic. Headache (32%) was the most common symptom in a patient with IAC. Out of all, 24 patients presented with headache and underwent surgery subsequently; 20 showed satisfactory relief after surgery while four showed partial relief. Size of cyst was significantly reduced after surgery in 52 patients after 12 weeks but four patients, who underwent cystoperitoneal shunt, required re-operation as patients showed no decrease in size of cyst due to shunt malfunction. Head circumference was reduced following intervention in infant patients. Three patients who presented with visual field defects with IAC in sellar region showed improvement after endoscopic fenestration of cyst. One of the patient with cerebellopontine angle arachnoid was died immediately after marsupialization due to unexplained bleeding.

Conclusions: IAC is not an uncommon finding on imaging but only few are symptomatic. Patients with Intracranial arachnoid cyst should be treated only if the patient’s symptoms are attributable to the cyst.