Vegetation beneath the canopy might be an important factor for macromoth community composition in forest ecosystems, strongly determined by forest management practices. Herein, we compared nocturnal macrolepidoptera communities and herb layers in young and old sessile oak (Quercus petraea) dominated forest stands in the Sopron Mountains (Western Hungary). The investigation of Lepidoptera species was performed 15 times from the end of March to the end of October in 2011. Portable light traps were used, and a total of 257 species and 5503 individuals were identified. The Geometridae family was the most abundant, followed by Noctuidae and Notodontidae. To investigate vascular plant species in the herb layer, circular plots with a 10-m radius around the moth traps were used. In each plot, we estimated the abundance of plant species in 20 sub-plots with a 1-m radius from May to July of 2011. The abundance of macromoth species was higher in the old forest stand, which might be influenced by the trees’ higher foliar biomass. However, the mean abundance of herbs was lower in the old forest. Diversity of both the herb layer and the moth community were significantly higher in the young forest. However we found higher species richness of moths in the old forest. For additional analyses, moths feeding on plants in the herb layer were selected, but neither the difference in species number, neither mean abundance between the young and old forest were significant. Our results suggest that the herb layer is not a key factor for macrolepidoptera communities in Hungarian sessile oak forest stands.
Regarding the aspects of climate policy, the building sector in Hungary is one of the best performing industries. This means that the GHGs (Greenhouse Gasses) the sector emits can be decreased more effectively and at less cost than in the case of other sectors. This is no surprise in the European Union, since there is a continual demand on behalf of society to develop old and outdated buildings, thus modern technological solutions also inherently result in operating efficacy. The ‘climate policy targeted’ development of the built environment based on EU funds is thus one of the most popular developments amongst European Union Member States. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to assess the climate policy effects of the presently preferred strategy approach(es) between 2020 and 2030.
This study investigates the possibilities of various development areas (transport, energy, building) to make the cost-efficient realisation of high-profile investments, and organising and holding international sports events possible. Using a case study, the paper introduces development routes based on the evaluation of environmental and economic perspectives. The current research introduces the investment characteristics based on the development of the Hungarian building, energy and transport sectors for the 2017-2030 period. The main criterion is the integration of ‘circular economy’. For sectors which operate with high material and energy consumption, the consideration of circular economy principles may prove to be important for sustainable development. Through planning highvolume sports and worldwide events, the usual development strategy for traffic systems focuses on public transport and rentable vehicles (f. e. electric scooter, or bicycle) which can decrease CO2 emissions via modern technological solutions. Regarding the buildings, sports arenas and related facilities, besides the existing low-carbon solutions, the functions of buildings must be expanded and their usage prolonged. The management of waste left after the life cycle is expended has to be pre-planned. These are the options for making the sector’s GHG emissions decrease apart from circular tenders, which can be further combined with SMART energetic solutions.
In recent years, there was an increase in economic concepts which defined various concepts for the European Union to leave the economic depression behind. The idea of circular economy boomed into the sight of European Union policy makers in the beginning of 2015. The notion introduced a holistic system planning approach for EU development initiatives. This paper introduces the essential background for the interpretation of circular economy and presents the main priorities throughout its implementation. The size of the European Community leaves many opportunities for the reconsideration of circular processes. The study focuses on circular applications in Hungary which substantially differ from the Western-European practice. The different wage and development levels of the member states in some cases might appear as a possibility to extend product life cycles which otherwise would end sooner. The analysis aims to find the reasons for the variant operations and examines how the extended spatial perspective from national levels to the EU level influences the transition to circular economy.
Considering the frequently changing business environment, staying competitive on the current markets takes more efforts from companies in the 21st century. Conducting only incremental product innovation does not meet the market criteria anymore. The successful entrepreneurs of the future must focus more on the design of their business models to gain superior economic performance. Besides the market, society has also raised a major requirement towards companies, which is being socially responsible. The word ‘sustainability’ regarding businesses might confuse a lot of people as several aspects of the term reach beyond its traditional economic interpretation. The present study provides a clear explanation and furthermore examines its application at a corporate level. This paper aims to present how business model innovation does not simply lead to economic success but its generated value can be extended to social and environmental aspects as well.
Balint Horvath, Maria Borocz, Sandor Zsarnoczai and Csaba Fogarassy
Natural gas is still the primary input of the Hungarian heating and cooling systems, therefore it still makes most of the overheads. One of the main obstacles of a competitive district heating system is the public opinion which still considers this service more expensive than the traditional heating forms. According to the absolute numbers this assumption might be valid but from a more accurate economic perspective, heat production has more aspects to stress. Most people forget about the simple fact that the maintenance costs of natural gas based systems are rather outsourced to the consumer than in the case of district heating. Furthermore, the uneven rate of the fixed and variable costs of this technology does not prove to be optimal for service developments. Investigating the future tendencies highlight that encouraging the efficiency improvement of district heating and the spread of technological innovation in the sector does not belong to the top priorities. Still, avoiding this problem it could lead serious deadweight losses in the case of the heating sector.
Laszló Toth, Balint Horvath, Zsolt Fulop and Csaba Fogarassy
The most notable role in the energy usage of rearing-related buildings belongs to barn climate. For animals, one of the most important climate parameter is the temperature of the barn atmosphere. This can be kept in the proper interval by either heating or cooling. Apart from the operation of technological solutions, the need for airing barns must be taken into consideration. This means there are special technical requirements for airing. Also, they can cause significant energy losses. The temperature limit of heating is mainly influenced by the technological temperature related to keeping the animal in question, its acceptable differences, the heat loss of the barn, and the airing requirement. Energy sources applicable to heating can be traditional sources (coal, oil, gas), renewable sources (solar, biomass, wind, water, or geothermal energy), or transformed energy (electricity). As these have specific operation systems, they also mean further challenges in implementing efficient energy usage. The usage of heating energy can either be optimised by the rational usage of the heating system, or machinery explicitly made for reserving energy. Sparing heating energy via recuperative heating exchange may cut costs significantly, which we also proved in this research with actual calculations. However, we have to state that the efficient usage of heat exchangers requires that the internal and external temperatures differ greatly, which has a huge impact on heat recovery performance.