The main purpose of this work is to determine the effect of milling time on microstructure as well as technological properties of aluminium matrix nanocomposites reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using powder metallurgy techniques, including mechanical alloying. The main problem of the study is the agglomeration and uneven distribution of carbon nanotubes in the matrix material and interface reactivity also. In order to reach uniform dispersion of carbon nanotubes in aluminium alloy matrix, 5÷20 h of mechanical milling in the planetary mill was used. It was found that the mechanical milling process has a strong influence on the characteristics of powders, by changing the globular morphology of as-received powder during mechanical milling process to flattened one, due to particle plastic deformation followed by cold welding and fracturing of deformed and hardened enough particles, which allows to obtain equiaxial particles again. The obtained composites are characterised by the structure of evenly distributed, disperse reinforcing particles in fine grain matrix of AA6061, facilitate the obtainment of higher values of mechanical properties, compared to the initial alloy. On the basis of micro-hardness, analysis has found that a small addition of carbon nanotubes increases nanocomposite hardness.
B. Tomiczek, M. Pawlyta, M. Adamiak and L.A. Dobrzański
The aim of this work is to determine the effect of manufacturing conditions, especially milling time, on the microstructure and crystallite size of a newly developed nanostructural composite material with the aluminium alloy matrix reinforced with halloysite nanotubes. Halloysite, being a clayey mineral of volcanic origin, is characterized by high porosity and large specific surface area. Thus it can be used as an alternative reinforcement in metal matrix composite materials. In order to obtain this goal, composite powders with fine microstructures were fabricated using high-energy mechanical alloying, cold compacting and hot extrusion techniques. The obtained composite powders of aluminium alloy reinforced with 5, 10 and 15 wt% of halloysite nanotubes were characterized with SEM, TEM and XRD analysis. It has been proven that the use of mechanical alloying leads to a high degree of deformation, which, coupled with a decreased grain size below 100 nm and the dispersion of the refined reinforcing particles–reinforces the material very well.
L.A. Dobrzański, B. Tomiczek, M. Pawlyta and M. Król
In this work selected results of investigations of the new AlMg1SiCu matrix composite materials reinforced with halloysite particles manufactured by powder metallurgy techniques including mechanical alloying and hot extrusion are present. The composite materials obtained as a result of mechanical synthesis and hot extrusion are characterized with the structure of evenly distributed, disperse reinforcing phase particles in fine-grain matrix of AlMg1SiCu alloy, facilitate the obtainment of higher values of strength properties, compared to the initial alloy. The nanostructural composite materials reinforced with halloysite nanotubes with 15 mass % share are characterized by almost twice as higher micro-hardness - compared to the matrix material.
M. Kujawa, L. A. Dobrzański, G. Matula, M. Kremzer and B. Tomiczek
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of manufacturing conditions on the structure and properties of porous halloysite preforms, which during pressure infiltration were soaked with a liquid alloy to obtain a metal matrix composite reinforced by ceramic, and also to find innovative possibilities for the application of mineral nanotubes obtained from halloysite. The method of manufacturing porous ceramic preforms (based on halloysite nanotubes) as semi-finished products that are applicable to modern infiltrated metal matrix composites was shown. The ceramic preforms were manufactured by sintering of halloysite nanotubes (HNT), Natural Nano Company (USA), with the addition of pores and canals forming agent in the form of carbon fibres (Sigrafil C10 M250 UNS SGL Group, the Carbon Company). The resulting porous ceramic skeletons, suggest innovative application capabilities mineral nanotubes obtained from halloysite.
T. Tański, W. Pakieła, D. Janicki, B. Tomiczek and M. Król
In this paper, the influence of a laser surface treatment on the structure and properties of aluminium alloy has been determined. The aim of this work was to improve the tribological properties of the surface layer of the EN AC-51100 aluminium alloy by simultaneously melting and feeding silicon carbide particles into the molten pool. The silicon carbide powder was introduced into the liquid metal using a gravity feeder within a constant feed rate of 1 g/min. A high power diode laser (HPDL) was used for remelting. Laser beam energies used in experiments were 1.8 kW, 2.0 kW and 2.2 kW, combined with the constant velocity of 50 mm/min. As a result of the laser treatment on the aluminium alloy, a composite layer with greater hardness and wear resistance compared to the based material was obtained.
A. Czupryński, J. Górka, M. Adamiak and B. Tomiczek
The paper presents the results of the properties of flame sprayed ceramic coatings using oxide ceramic materials coating of a powdered aluminium oxide (Al2O3) matrix with 3% titanium oxide (TiO2) applied to unalloyed S235JR grade structural steel. A primer consisting of a metallic Ni-Al-Mo based powder has been applied to plates with dimensions of 5×200×300 mm and front surfaces of Ø40×50 mm cylinders. Flame spraying of primer coating was made using a RotoTec 80 torch, and an external coating was made with a CastoDyn DS 8000 torch. Evaluation of the coating properties was conducted using metallographic testing, phase composition research, measurement of microhardness, substrate coating adhesion (acc. to EN 582:1996 standard), erosion wear resistance (acc. to ASTM G76-95 standard), and abrasive wear resistance (acc. to ASTM G65 standard) and thermal impact. The testing performed has demonstrated that flame spraying with 97% Al2O3 powder containing 3% TiO2 performed in a range of parameters allows for obtaining high-quality ceramic coatings with thickness up to ca. 500 µm on a steel base. Spray coating possesses a structure consisting mainly of aluminium oxide and a small amount of NiAl10O16 and NiAl32O49 phases. The bonding primer coat sprayed with the Ni-Al-Mo powder to the steel substrate and external coating sprayed with the 97% Al2O3 powder with 3% TiO2 addition demonstrates mechanical bonding characteristics. The coating is characterized by a high adhesion to the base amounting to 6.5 MPa. Average hardness of the external coating is ca. 780 HV. The obtained coatings are characterized by high erosion and abrasive wear resistance and the resistance to effects of cyclic thermal shock.
M. Kremzer, M. Dziekońska, M. Sroka and B. Tomiczek
The aim of this study is to investigate tribological properties of EN AC-AlSi12 alloy composite materials matrix manufactured by pressure infiltration of Al2O3 porous preforms. In the paper, a technique of manufacturing composite materials was described in detail as well as wear resistance made on pin on disc was tested. Metallographic observations of wear traces of tested materials using stereoscopic and confocal microscopy were made. Studies allow concluding that obtained composite materials have much better wear resistance than the matrix alloy AlSi12. It was further proved that the developed technology of their preparation consisting of pressure infiltration of porous ceramic preforms can find a practical application.
M. Adamiak, B. Tomiczek, J. Górka and A. Czupryński
The introduction of new reinforcing materials continues to be investigated to improve the final behaviour of AMCs as well as to avoid some drawbacks of using ceramics as reinforcement. The present work investigates the structure, properties and ability of joining aluminium EN-AW 6061 matrix composite materials reinforced with Ti3Al particles by resistance butt welding as well as composite materials produced by mechanical milling, powder metallurgy and hot extrusion techniques. Mechanically milled and extruded composites show finer and better distribution of reinforcement particles, which leads to better mechanical properties of the obtained products. Finer microstructure improves mechanical properties of obtained composites. The hardness increases twice in the case of mechanically milled composites also, a higher reinforcement content results in higher particle dispersion hardening, for 15 wt.% of intermetallics reinforcement concentration composites reach about 400 MPa UTS. Investigation results of joints show that best hardness and tensile properties of joints can be achieved by altering soft conditions of butt welding process e.g. current flow time 1.2 s and current 1400 A. To improve mechanical properties of butt welding joints age hardening techniques can also be used.
L. A. Dobrzański, M. Macek, B. Tomiczek, P. M. Nuckowski and A. J. Nowak
The aim of this work was to study the effect of different methods of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) dispersion, and their influence on the microstructure and properties of aluminium alloy matrix composites produced using the powder metallurgy techniques, such as powder milling/mixing and hot extrusion. The main problem in the manufacturing of nanocomposites is the homogeneous distribution of MWCNTs in the metal matrix. To achieve their proper distribution a high-energy and low-energy mechanical milling, using a planetary ball mill, and mixing, using a turbulent mixer, were applied. Studies have shown that composite materials prepared using milling and extrusion have a much better dispersion of the reinforcing phase, which leads to better mechanical properties of the obtained rods. The low-energy mechanical mixing and mixing using the turbulent mixer neither change the powder morphology nor lead to adequate dispersion of the carbon nanotubes, which directly affects the resulting properties.