Role of the APOB Gene Polymorphism (c.12669G>A, p. Gln4154Lys) in Coronary Artery Disease in the Indian Punjabi Population
High concentration of apolipoprotein B (apoB) is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). The association of the APOB gene polymorphism c.12669G>A, p. Gln4154Lys with the risk of CAD varies considerably in different populations. The present study represents the first investigation regarding the role of this APOB gene polymorphism with CAD in the Indian Punjabi population. We have studied the APOB gene polymorphism c.12669G>A, p. Gln4154Lys and its relationship with lipid, apoB, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) heterogeneity and oxidation in subjects suffering from CAD. The study was conducted on 87 patients with CAD; 75 healthy subjects served as controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to determine the DNA polymorphism in the APOB gene. Frequency of R-(mutant) allele was significantly high (p <0.05) in CAD patients when compared to controls. Variations in serum lipid levels in the R+R+ and R+R- APOB genotypes were insignificant (p >0.05). However, serum apoB levels were significantly raised (p <0.05) in CAD patients with the R+R- genotype as compared to those with the R+R+ APOB genotype. Coronary artery disease patients had raised significantly raised (p <0.01) Log triglyceride/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, apoB carbonyl content and increased malondialdehyde-low density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL levels, irrespective of APOB genotype as compared to controls. Carriers of the R- allele are at higher risk of CAD, probably because of elevated serum apoB levels in the Indian Punjabi population. Overall, it may be concluded that the R- allele might be associated with increased susceptibility towards CAD development in the Indian Punjabi population, and one of the linking factor is the elevation in serum apoB levels. However, this association needs further evaluation in a larger population. Secondly, the robust mechanism behind the positive association of the R- allele with raised serum apoB levels needs to be explored, which might be helpful in the strengthening the observed results.
The paper focuses on the influences of some factors significant to pyrolysis of forestry biomass on the asymptotic solution of the non-isothermal nth-order distribution energy model (DAEM) using Gaussian distribution. Investigated parameters are the integral upper limit, the frequency factor, and the heating rate parameters of the Gaussian distribution. The influence of these factors has been used for evaluating the kinetic parameters of the non-isothermal nth-order Gaussian distribution from thermogravimetric analysis of forest waste.
Rayleigh-Taylor instability of two superposed Walters’ B has elastico-viscous fluids in a uniform magnetic field through a porous medium with different permeability been studied to include the suspended (dust) particles effect. Using normal mode technique a dispersion relation has been derived. The stability analysis has been carried out. The magnetic field stabilizes the unstable configuration for the wave number band K > K* in which the system is unstable in the absence of the magnetic field. It is also found that for a potential stable arrangement for Walters B’ elastico-viscous fluids of different permeabilities in the presence of suspended particles through a porous medium the system is stable, whereas in the potentially unstable case instability of the system occurs.
B. Singh, K. Pathak, A. Verma, V. Verma and B. Deka
Effects of Vermicompost, Fertilizer and Mulch on Plant Growth, Nodulation and Pod Yield of French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
Integration of vermicompost and organic mulch as elements of vegetable production system sustain soil fertility and crop productivity. A field experiment was conducted with the objective to investigate the effects of vermicompost, NPK fertilizer and organic mulch on crop growth, nodulation and pod yield of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with an ultimate aim of optimizing water and nutrient requirement in mild-tropical climate during dry season. The shoot growth traits, namely shoot length, number of primary branches, shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight were increased by 28-63% through application of N P2O5 K2O 8:13:10 kg·ha-1 + vermicompost 3.75 t·ha-1 and by 5-50% in organic mulching treatments. Application of vermicompost reduced nodule fresh weight and nodule dry weight by 44.9 and 44.5%, respectively. Likewise, corresponding nodule number, nodule fresh weight and nodule dry weight were reduced by 8.6, 11.1 and 14.1% with organic mulching. Poor nodulations might be due to reduced oxygenation of the soils under vermicompost and organic mulch which is ultimately impeding the nitrogenase activity and biological nitrogen fixation. Mulching of French bean with dried grasses and crop residues are also led to higher single pod weight, pod length, pod weight/plant and pod yield by 10.9, 12.8, 20.1 and 20.2%, respectively. Present study shows that application of N P2O5 K2O fertilizer 8-15:13-25:10-20 kg·ha-1, vermicompost 2.50-3.75 t·ha-1, 4 cm thick mulch of dried crop residues and 50% irrigation is the most suitable and sustainable strategy to improve plant growth, pod formation and pod yield of French bean, and soil health of mild-tropical climate during dry season.
Vermicompost and NPK Fertilizer Effects on Morpho-Physiological Traits of Plants, Yield and Quality of Tomato Fruits: (Solanum lycopersicum L.)
A field experiment was conducted with an objective to investigate the effects of vermicompost and NPK fertilizer application on morpho-physiological traits, yield and quality attributes of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) with an ultimate aim of optimizing nutrient requirements of tomato in mild-tropical agro-climate. The application of vermicompost together with NPK fertilizer increased plant height, leaf area, leaf weight, fruit weight, fruit yield, fruit density, post-harvest life and TSS of tomato. Application of vermicompost alone too increased the shelf-life by 250% and TSS beyond 4.5%, both of which are traits highly desirable for summer production of tomato and the related processing industry. Present study reveals that application of vermicompost in the amount of 7.5 t·ha-1 in combination with 50% dose of NPK fertilizer (60:30:30 kg·ha-1) was optimum for obtaining better quality and productivity of field grown tomatoes in mild-tropical agro-climate, eventually integrated nutrient supply will sustain the soil fertility and plant productivity eco-friendly.
Brassica vegetables are important sources of dietary minerals. However, information on the inheritance and correlation for content of mineral elements such as iron, zinc, copper, manganese, potassium, and calcium in cabbage, which is essential if the quality of this vegetable is to be improved through breeding, is not available. Therefore, the experiment was set up with seventy-one cabbage genotypes including cultivars, germplasm and F1 hybrids grown in field. Mineral composition of the genotypes tested differed highly significantly indicating the presence of adequate amount of variability. A high heritability (>80%) accompanied by high genetic advance as percentage of mean (>40%) for uptake and accumulation of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Ca indicates the predominance of additive gene, which could be improved by hybridization followed by selection breeding approach. Nevertheless, heterosis breeding would be an imperative in increasing the K content in cabbage heads as indicated by non-additive gene action for K accumulation having high heritability (>80%) and low genetic advance as percentage of mean (<30%). Moreover, both additive and non-additive genes were responsible for individual head weight. A positive correlation for Fe, Zn and Mn contents with other minerals will help in simultaneous selection of mineral elements. Nevertheless, major yield contributing ‘head weight’ was negatively correlated with minerals content and emphasized the selection of smaller head size to maintain the higher minerals content in tissues of cabbage heads. Hence, assessing the heritability, inheritance and correlation for minerals would be useful in the developing mineral-rich and productive genotypes.
Thermal Instability (Benard’s Convection) in the presence of uniform rotation and uniform magnetic field (separately) is studied. Using the linearized stability theory and normal mode analyses the dispersion relation is obtained in each case. In the case of rotatory Benard’s stationary convection compressibility and rotation postpone the onset of convection whereas the couple-stress have duel character onset of convection depending on rotation parameter. While in the absence of rotation couple-stress always postpones the onset of convection. On the other hand, magnetic field on thermal instability problem on couple-stress fluid for stationary convection couple-stress parameter and magnetic field postpones the onset of convection. The effect of compressibility also postpones the onset of convection in both cases as rotation and magnetic field. Graphs have been plotted by giving numerical values to the parameters to depict the stationary characteristics. Further, the magnetic field and rotation are found to introduce oscillatory modes which were non-existent in their absence and then the principle of exchange of stability is valid. The sufficient conditions for non-existence of overstability are also obtained.
Echinococcosis is a preventable but neglected zoonosis in India. Although the disease in domestic animals is usually asymptomatic, huge economic losses have been reported due to cystic echinococcosis in livestock in India. The molecular characterization of Echinococcus from dog populations has not been previously carried out in Punjab (India). A total of 237 pet and stray dog faecal samples were collected and examined for the presence of eggs of the Taeniidae family in Punjab (India). A 255 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene was amplified and the presence of sheep strain (G1) of E. granulosus has been reported. We detected eggs of the Taeniidae family in 2.11 per cent of the faecal samples. High prevalence was recorded in stray dogs (9.52 %) living near slaughter shops/post mortem areas. The prevalence of E. granulosus sheep strain (G1) using PCR was found to be 0.84 per cent in naturally infected dogs. This is the first study confirming the presence of E. granulosus (G1) sheep strain in dogs in Punjab (India). The results reveal the presence of sheep strain of E. granulosus and demand implementation of Animal Birth Control programme so as to control the stray dog population of the country.
B. Singh, G. Singh, R. Sharma, J. Sharma, R. Aulakh and J. Gill
Human hydatidosis is an important public health issue in India and many other developing countries. There is lack of data related to occurrence of this disease in certain risk groups. The present study was therefore designed to assess the seroprevalence of human hydatidosis among occupational risk groups in Punjab (India). One hundred and forty nine human serum samples from dog handlers, veterinarians/para veterinarians, dairy farmers, patients with liver disorders, HIV positives and control group (visiting hospital for other problems) were collected and analyzed using a commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results revealed that 23 (15.43 %) subjects were seropositive for human hydatidosis. High seropositivity were recorded in dog handlers (30 %), followed by the other risk group populations. Relative risk of being infected was found to be 4.80 times high in dog handlers when compared to control group population. Future studies must be planned to determine the significance of these findings and the status of human hydatidosis in India.
The main aim of this paper is to fuzzify the kinetic parameters, which have crisp nature, in order to obtain the realistic and accurate results. In the present study, the variance, upper limit of ‘dE’ and the frequency factor are assumed to be fuzzy numbers. The Gaussian distribution is considered as the distribution function, f (E), of Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM). The membership and the non-membership functions are evaluated by the trapezoidal fuzzy number. Thermo-analytical data has been found experimentally with the help of TGA/DTG analysis. The approximated solution of DAEM is obtained with the help of asymptotic expansion.