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B. Panic

Abstract

The flow of gases with powder in the countercurrent to the charge materials occurs in many chemical processes. In the shaft metallurgical devices, the physical and chemical processes take place also in the countercurrent system. An important issue is that there are no disruptions of the flow in this multiphase system. Under real operating conditions of the device, the powder is generated within the process and its source is the charge or it is inserted to the device within the process procedure.

In this system, a problem of bed particle suspension appears. That is why the author undertook investigations on the gas - powder flow in the descending bed. A physical model of this system was constructed. The experiments were performed and the influence of gas velocity, a type and size of the bed and powder particles as well as the powder concentration in the gas was established. Conditions when the descending bed suspension occurs were defined. In the case of physical model with glass materials, the suspension of bed did not occur. Therefore, investigations using beds of high alumina materials, blast furnace pellets and iron powder were performed. The results are presented below. When the bed of glass spheres was replaced with the bed of alumina spheres, a considerable increase in the volume of powder held up in the bed the gas flow resistance were observed. The surface properties of bed particles changed and better conditions for powder holdup were created. The actual gas velocity in the bed increased due to void fraction reduction.

Replacement of the glass powder with the iron powder caused a change in the powder density, its surface properties and the shape factor. Greater amounts of the iron powder were held up in the bed and the gas flow resistance increased.

Comparing the alumina particle bed - iron powder system to the blast furnace pellet bed - iron powder system, changes in the surface properties of bed particles and the void fraction of bed changed. The study results were the basis for defining conditions of the descending bed suspension.

Open access

B. Panic

This paper presents the second phase of model investigations. In the first phase research into flow for the system “gas transporting powder - moving packed bed” was conducted in the physical modeling. The influence of bed, powder and gas parameters on values of interaction forces and phenomena occurring in investigated system was defined.

The article discusses the successive stage of investigations into gas flow carrying the powder through the descending packed bed. The research was performed with the application of mathematical modeling after tests with a physical model in use had been accomplished. The elaborated mathematical model was used to calculate resistance values of gas flow carrying the powder through the descending packed bed, masses of ‘static’ and ‘dynamic’ powders as well as total mass of powder holdup in the bed. Then the verification of the model was done comparing the obtained results with those from the physical model.

Open access

B. Panic

Abstract

The flow of gases in metallurgical shaft furnaces has a decisive influence on the course and process efficiency. Radial changes in porosity of the bed cause uneven flow of gas along the radius of the reactor, which sometimes is deliberate and intentional. However, holdup of solid particles in descending packed beds of metallurgical shaft furnaces can lead to unintentional changes in porosity of the bed along the radial reactor. Unintentional changes in porosity often disrupt the flow of gas causing poor performance of the furnace. Such disruptions of flow may occur in the blast furnace due to high level of powder content in gas caused by large amount of coal dust/powder insufflated as fuel substitute. The paper describes the model test results of radial distribution of static pressure and powder hold up within metallurgical reactor. The measurements were carried out with the use of 3D physical model of two-phase flow gas-powder in the moving (descending) packed bed. Sinter or blast furnace pellets were used as packed bed while carbon powder or iron powder were used as the powder. Wide diversity within both static pressure distribution and powder distribution along the radius of the reactor were observed once the change in the type of powder occurred.