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Open access

A. Smalcerz, B. Oleksiak and G. Siwiec

Abstract

A big interest in application of cold crucible furnace (CCF) for industrial, particularly metallurgical, processes has been observed in recent years. They are mainly utilised for melting of metal, glass and other materials. Analyses of processes that occur in such devices are performed; however, computer modelling is rarely applied. As a precise determination of the electromagnetic field distribution is essential for a proper analysis of processes in furnaces with cold crucibles, a complex 3D model development is necessary. In the paper, effects of a crucible design and current frequency on the efficiency of the induction furnace with cold crucible are presented. Numerical calculations were performed with the use of the Flux 3D professional software.

Open access

G. Siwiec, B. Oleksiak, A. Smalcerz and J. Wieczorek

In the paper, results of surface tension measurements with regard to liquid copper-silver alloys with the maximum silver content of 40 % mass Ag are presented. The measurements were performed at 1373-1573 K with the use of the sessile drop method. In the study, a high-temperature microscope, coupled with a camera and a computer equipped with the software designed for experiment recording and picture analysing, was applied. In order to determine surface tension values, the least square estimation of the parameters of the system of differential equations, describing the shape of a liquid sessile drop, was used.

Open access

J. Wieczorek, B. Oleksiak, J. Łabaj, B. Węcki and M. Mańka

Phase compositions of composite materials determine their performance as well as physical and mechanical properties. Depending on the type of applied matrix and the kind, amount and morphology of the matrix reinforcement, it is possible to shape the material properties so that they meet specific operational requirements. In the paper, results of investigations on silver alloy matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particles are presented. The investigations enabled evaluation of hardness, tribological and mechanical properties as well as the structure of produced materials. The matrix of composite material was an alloy of silver and aluminium, magnesium and silicon. As the reinforcing phase, 20-60 μm ceramic particles (SiC, SiO2, Al2O3 and Cs) were applied. The volume fraction of the reinforcing phase in the composites was 10%. The composites were produced using the liquid phase (casting) technology, followed by plastic work (the KOBO method). The mechanical and tribological properties were analysed for plastic work-subjected composites. The mechanical properties were assessed based on a static tensile and hardness tests. The tribological properties were investigated under dry sliding conditions. The analysis of results led to determination of effects of the composite production technology on their performance. Moreover, a relationship between the type of reinforcing phase and the mechanical and tribological properties was established.

Open access

B. Oleksiak, J. Łabaj, J. Wieczorek, A. Blacha-Grzechnik and R. Burdzik

Abstract

The study involved measurements of surface tension of liquid binary copper-bismuth alloys with respect to their chemical composition and temperature as well as investigations of the liquid alloy - refractory material - gaseous phase system wettability using usual refractory materials, i.e. aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide and graphite. The experiments were performed with the use of sessile drop method and a high-temperature microscope coupled with a camera and a computer was utilised.

Open access

J. Wieczorek, B. Oleksiak, J. Mizera, K. Kulikowski and P. Maj

The paper presents results of a study on the quality of coatings deposited on surfaces of AZ31 magnesium alloy products. In order to obtain protective coatings (corrosion and erosive wear protection), the methods of anodising (specimens A, B and C) and, for comparison, electroless plating (specimen D) were applied. The assessment of coating quality was based on the scratch test results. The results were used for determination of critical loads resulting in coating rupture. The best result was obtained for the specimen B (sulphuric acid anodising in combination with sealing): the critical load was 7.5 N. The smallest value (5.5 N) was observed for the specimen D, i.e. the coating produced using the electroless plating method. Moreover, erosion resistance of the coatings was assessed. In this case, a depth of the wear trace due to an erodent agent (SiC powder) effects was investigated. The results are comparable to those obtained in the scratch test. The poorest erosion resistance is demonstrated by the coating D and the best resistance is observed for the coating B.

Open access

M. Iwańska, A. Oleksy, M. Dacko, B. Skowera, T. Oleksiak and E. Wójcik-Gront

Summary

Wheat is one of the modern world’s staple food sources. Its production requires good environmental conditions, which are not always available. However, agricultural practices may mitigate the effects of unfavorable weather or poor-quality soils. The influence of environmental and crop management variables on yield can be evaluated only based on representative long-term data collected on farms through well-prepared surveys.The authors of this work analyzed variation in winter wheat yield among 3868 fields in western and eastern Poland for 12 years, as dependent on both soil/weather and crop management factors, using the classification and regression tree (CART) method. The most important crop management deficiencies which may cause low wheat yields are insufficient use of fungicides, phosphorus deficiency, non-optimal date of sowing, poor quality of seeds, failure to apply herbicides, lack of crop rotation, and use of cultivars of unknown origin not suitable for the region. Environmental variables of great importance for the obtaining of high yields include large farm size (10 ha or larger) and good-quality soils with stable pH. This study makes it possible to propose strategies supporting more effective winter wheat production based on the identification of characteristics that are crucial for wheat cultivation in a given region.

Open access

A. Lisiecki, R. Burdzik, G. Siwiec, Ł. Konieczny, J. Warczek, P. Folęga and B. Oleksiak

Autogenous laser welding of 0.8 mm thick butt joints of car body electro-galvanized steel sheet DC04 was investigated. The Yb:YAG disk laser TruDisk 3302 with the beam spot diameter of 200 μm was used. The effect of laser welding parameters and technological conditions on weld shape, penetration depth, process stability, microstructure and mechanical performance was determined. It was found that the laser beam spot focused on the top surface of a butt joint tends to pass through the gap, especially in the low range of heat input and high welding speed. All test welds were welded at a keyhole mode, and the weld metal was free of porosity. Thus, the keyhole laser welding of zinc coated steel sheets in butt configuration provides excellent conditions to escape for zinc vapours, with no risk of porosity. Microstructure, microhardness and mechanical performance of the butt joints depend on laser welding conditions thus cooling rate and cooling times. The shortest cooling time t8/5 was calculated for 0.29 s.