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B. Manoj, Ashlin M. Raj and George Thomas Chirayil


Coal is a natural energy resource which is mainly used for energy production via combustion. Coal has nanocrystals embedded in it, formed during the coalification process, and is an ideal precursor for nano-carbon dots and diamonds. Herein, we report a facile top-down method to synthesise nanodots and diamonds of the size of 5 nm to 10 nm from three different types of coal by simple chemical leaching. TEM analysis revealed the formation of a mixture of carbon dots, graphene layers, and quantum dots in bituminous coal and sub-bituminous coal. Raman analysis confirmed the existence of synthesized nanodiamond and nano-carbon mixed phase with defects associated with it. It is concluded that graphene quantum dots, nanodiamonds, graphene sheets and carbon dots present in coal can be extracted by simple chemical treatment. These structures can be tuned to photoluminescent material for various optoelectronic applications or energy harvesting devices like super capacitors.

Open access

A.V. Ramya, Anu N. Mohan and B. Manoj


Wrinkled graphene, derived from a facile thermal decomposition and chemical method, was subjected to various analysis techniques and the results have been reported here. Raman studies revealed the presence of highly graphitized amorphous carbon, which was evident by the appearance of five peaks in the deconvoluted first order spectrum. This result was very well corroborated by the XRD analysis. XPS and FT-IR spectra confirmed the incorporation of oxygen functionalities into the carbon backbone. AFM and SEM images of the sample disclosed a cluster of few-layer wrinkled graphene fragments. TEM images displayed a chain of nearly spherical aggregates of graphene, resembling nanohorns. The resistivity and sheet resistance of the sample were found to be low, making the obtained material a promising candidate for various device applications. Hence, kerosene soot proved to be an efficient precursor for facile synthesis of few layer graphene-like nanocarbon.

Open access

B Kumar, K Lakshman, V Swamy, P Kumar, D Shekar, B Manoj and G Vishwantha

Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of Amaranthus viridis Linn

Aim: To study heaptoprotective activity of methanolic extract of whole plant of Amaranthus viridis Linn (MeAv) in paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity.

Materials and Methods: MeAv was screened for hepatoprotective activity in PCM (3 g/kg) induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats for 15 days at dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg by measuring liver marker enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase), bilirubin (total bilirubin and direct bilirubin) and albumin (ALB), total protein (TP) levels and histopathological studies. Antioxidant activities were studies by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and total thiols (TT) in liver homegenate of treated animals.

Results: MeAv significantly (p<0.001) decreases the elevated liver marker enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase), bilirubin (total bilirubin and direct bilirubin) and restores albumin (ALB), total protein (TP) levels. A histopathological study also showed liver protective activity of MeAv. In in vivo antioxidant studies, the MeAv has significantly restored the malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and total thiols.

Conclusion: In conclusion, administration of MeAv for 15 days showed liver protective activity against paracetamol induced liver damage and the potential antioxidant property of MeAv thought to be the mechanism behind its hepatoprotective activity.