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B. Işik and A. Kentli

Abstract

Titanium and its alloys are attractive materials due to their unique high strength-weight ratio that is maintained at elevated temperatures and their exceptional corrosion resistance. The major application of titanium has been in the aerospace industry. However, the focus shift of market trends from military to commercial and aerospace to industry also been reported. On the other hand, titanium and its alloys are notorious for their poor thermal properties and are classified as difficult-to-machine materials. These properties limit the use of these materials especially in the markets where cost is much more of a factor than in aerospace. Machining is an important manufacturing process because it is almost always involved if precision is required and is the most effective process for small volume production. Due to the low machinability of the alloys under study, selecting the machining conditions and parameters is crucial. The range of feeds and cutting speeds, which provide a satisfactory tool life, is very limited. On the other hand, adequate tool, coating, geometry and cutting flow materials should be used: otherwise, the high wear of the tool, and the possible tolerance errors, would introduce unacceptable flaws in parts that require a high degree of precision.

In this study, heat changes of Ti6Al4V has been examined on the basis of cutting parameters such as depth of cut, feedrate and cutting speed during drilling. Heat changes of the material and tool was monitored by a thermal camera. Maximum temperatures of the experiments were taken to examine optimum cutting parameters. Obtained results have been used to generate a regression analysis and it is seen that regression has given accurate data.

Open access

S. E. Mckeand, B. Li, J. E. Grissom, F. Isik and K. J. S. Jayawickrama

Abstract

Variation in heritability and in genetic correlation estimates were evaluated for juvenile tree height and volume for six testing areas of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in the southeastern United States. Variance components and their functions (heritability and type B genetic correlations) were estimated from 265 six-parent disconnected diallel series, tested in almost 1000 trials (4 tests per diallel series). Original data were collected at age 6 years from about one million trees (265 diallel series x 30 crosses x 36 trees per cross/site x 4 sites) planted in field tests. Genetic tests were from the second cycle of breeding in the North Carolina State University - Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program. The overall unbiased individual-tree narrow-sense heritability for height was 0.19 and for volume was 0.16. The broad-sense heritabilities for height (0.24) and for volume (0.22) were higher than narrow-sense heritabilities due to the presence of non-additive genetic variance. There were moderate regional differences in these estimates, with tests in the Lower Gulf Coastal Plain tending to have the highest heritabilities for growth traits. There was very little association between site index and heritability, but heritabilities were higher on sites with the highest survival and highest test precision. Genotype x environment interactions were generally low both for half-sib and full-sib families, indicating that families can be operationally deployed to different sites with little concern about unpredictable performance.

Open access

J. R. Sherrill, T. J. Mullin, B. P. Bullock, S. E. Mckeand, R. C. Purnell, M. L. Gumpert and F. Isik

Abstract

Total inside-bark volume is the most important selection criterion for productivity in tree breeding programs in the Southeastern U.S. Tree breeders typically estimate total inside-bark volume based on outside-bark diameter at breast height and total height without accounting for stem taper or bark thickness. To make a direct determination of total inside- and outside-bark volume, a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) open-pollinated family trial replicated with cultural treatments of weed control and fertilization was measured. This direct measurement was compared to typical volume estimates. In this trial, approximately 40 individuals from each of 25 open-pollinated first- and second-generation families were destructively sampled in the 13th growing season. Selection for volume using a combined-variable (diameter2 * height) equation was found to be highly effective for making volume gain. There was a high correlation between estimated and directly-measured total inside-bark volumes (0.99). Bark thickness and stem taper had low importance for stem volume selection. There was a positive genetic correlation between bark thickness and diameter at breast height (0.66). This indicates that selection for larger diameters may produce individuals with thicker bark, which may eventually affect total inside-bark volume estimates.