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L. Wierzbicki, W. Malec, J. Stobrawa, B. Cwolek and B. Juszczyk

Studies Into New, Environmentally Friendly Ag-Cu-Zn-Sn Brazing Alloys of Low Silver Content

The paper present selected results of the research conducted for elimination of toxic cadmium from silver based brazing alloys of Ag-Cu-Zn-Cd type. The investigations were conducted with nine new alloys of constant, low silver content (25%) and diversified copper (38.8-46%), zinc (19-32%) and tin (3-10%) contents. Tin was selected as potentially the best cadmium substitute basing on literature review and analysis of equilibrium systems.

For examinations and tests a series of ingots in laboratory scale was manufactured, as well as some ingots in pilot scale for the selected, most promising alloys. Complex metallographic examinations of the brazing alloys samples produced in various conditions were made as well as analyses of their phase composition. Also mechanical properties of the samples both in ambient and in elevated temperatures were examined, and physical and technological properties and usability of the alloys were determined. The last stage of the study covered laboratory trials of brazing using the selected alloys.

Basing on the results it can be said that there is a possibility to substitute selected cadmium containing silver-based alloys with environmentally friendly alloys of Ag-Cu-Zn-Sn type of relatively low silver content. Low range of melting point was reached, as preliminary assumed. Mechanical properties of the studied alloys strongly depend on temperature, and present limited plasticity in room temperature, while at high temperature (over 500°C) present superplasticity. The examined alloys show good spreadability and the brazing tests confirmed their good reactions both with copper and brass base in a wide temperature range.

Open access

B. Juszczyk, J. Kulasa, S. Malara, M. Czepelak, W. Malec, B. Cwolek and Ł. Wierzbicki

Abstract

The results of research into influence of chemical composition on structure and tribological properties of copper-based composites intended for slide bearings are presented in this paper. The study was focused on copper alloys with lubricating phase particles in form of graphite, tungsten disulphide (WS2), molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and glassy carbon. The metallic matrix of composite materials was composed of alloys from Cu-Sn-Zn system. The mass content of lubricating phase particles was from 5 to 20%. The process of production of subject materials included the processes conducted with full or partial contribution of liquid phase and it was conducted by two methods. Both the method of classic powder metallurgy and stir casting method were used for the production of composites. Lubricating phase particles heated to the temperature of 200°C were introduced to liquid metal bath and then the process of stirring and casting to moulds was performed. In case of production of composites by powder metallurgy, the process included mixing of bronze powders and lubricating phase particles, and then their consolidation. Sintering process was conducted in temperature between 750-800°C. The produced materials were tested in terms of microstructure and tribological properties with the CSM Instruments tribometer.