In this Paper, a parametric study on pipes buried in soil was performed illustrating the results of blast loading. Effects of various parameters such as the physical properties of water, oil, gas, air, soil, pipes, and TNT have been investigated. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method was employed using LS-DYNA software. The maximum pressure in a buried pipe explosive was observed at an angle of about 0° to 45° and the minimum pressure occurred at an angle of about 45° to 90°. Therefore, all figures in this study illustrate that fluid pressure levels in buried pipes can help in their stabilization. In generally, by increasing the 1.23 times of liquid density under the explosion, the pressure levels in the soil decreased by 1.3 percent. The gas pressure has been increasing more than oil and water pipes 39.73 and 40.52 percent, respectively.
S. A. Hosseini, A. Akbarpour, H. Ahmadi and B. Aminnejad
Underground spaces having features such as stability, resistance, and being undetected can play a key role in reducing vulnerability by relocating infrastructures and manpower. In recent years, the competitive business environment and limited resources have mostly focused on the importance of project management in order to achieve its objectives. In this research, in order to find the best balance among cost, time, and quality related to construction projects using reinforced concrete in underground structures, a multi-objective mathematical model is proposed. Several executive approaches have been considered for project activities and these approaches are analyzed via several factors. It is assumed that cost, time, and quality of activities in every defined approach can vary between compact and normal values, and the goal is to find the best execution for activities, achieving minimum cost and the maximum quality for the project. To solve the proposed multi-objective model, the genetic algorithm NSGA-II is used.