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Description of A New Spider Species of The Genus Gnaphosa (Araneae, Gnaphosidae) From Pakistan

Gnaphosa pakistanica Ovchinnikov, Ahmad et Inayatullah, sp. n. from Pakistan is described. Comments on the other two species recorded from Pakistan are given.

Parazodarion, a New Genus of the Spider Family Zodariidae (Araneae) from Asia

Parazodarion Ovchinnikov, gen. n. is described. It is a monotypic genus with the type species Zodarion raddei Simon, 1889 widespread in Turkmenistan, Southern Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan previously assigned to the genus Zodarion Walckenaer, 1826 recently shown to be non-monophyletic.

Effect of lambda-cyhalothrin and Neemgold on some biochemical parameters in the gill, liver, and ovary of zebrafish, Danio rerio (Cyprinidae)

The aim of the present work was to study the effect of lambda-cyhalothrin and Neemgold on the total protein, total free amino acid, and nucleic acid contents in tissues (gill, liver, and ovary) of zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton), after exposure to 96 h LC10, LC20, and LC40 of lambda-cyhalothrin and the neem-based pesticide Neemgold. It was found that the total protein content was reduced to 38, 46, and 45% in gill, liver, and ovary, respectively, after lambda-cyhalothrin exposure for 21 days at the LC40 dose. The total free amino acid content in the liver was enhanced to 172 and 154% of control (100%) after exposure to LC40 of lambda-cyhalothrin and Neemgold, respectively. However, the total free amino acid content in the gill and ovary of treated fish was significantly reduced. In addition, DNA content was reduced to 45, 41, and 41% of controls (100%) in gill, liver, and ovary, respectively, after 21 days of exposure to LC40 of lambda-cyhalothrin. The reduction in DNA content from the control was 51, 53, and 55% in gill, liver, and ovary, respectively, from Neemgold exposure at the same concentration (LC40) and period as lambda-cyhalothrin. It was observed that all the changes were dependent on concentration as well as time. Similarly, significant reductions in RNA content were also observed in gill, liver, and ovary after lambda-cyhalothrin and Neemgold exposure. The probable causes are discussed.

A Simple Procedure to Determine Complex Permittivity of Moist Materials Using Standard Commercial Coaxial Sensor

A simple procedure was developed to determine complex permittivity of moist materials for known percentage of moisture content at any frequency based using a standard commercial coaxial sensor. Polynomial fitting and Gaussian elimination method were applied to obtain a single equation of complex permittivity as a function of frequency and moisture content. The empirical equation was tested for new samples and was found to have mean error percentage of 5.14 % and 10.22 % for dielectric constant and loss factor, respectively, when compared to a commercial probe.


Background: Wearing a face veil (niqab) was found to have a negative effect on the ventilatory function of Saudi adult women, which may challenge their functional exercise capacity.

Objectives: To investigate the effect of physical activity on a 6-minute walked distance (6-MWD) among young adult niqab-wearing healthy Saudi women.

Materials and Methods: Forty healthy young Saudi women were recruited for this study. The study participants (aged 22.8 ± 2.5 years) were selected from students and administrative staff at King Saud University. They were normotensive, nonsmokers, and of normal or mildly overweight. They were divided into 2 groups on basis of niqab wearing. A 6- minute walk test was implemented as measure of the participant’s functional exercise capacity. Their physical activity level was expressed as low, moderate, or high levels using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form. Comparisons between the basal physiological characters of the 2 groups, 6-MWD, and physical activity level were conducted. A two-way independent ANOVA was used to study the interaction of niqab wearing and the physical activity level on the 6-MWD for niqab wearing women.

Results: Women in the niqab wearing group had a significantly higher physical activity level and longer 6-MWD than those in the niqab nonwearing group (370.7 ± 62.95 and 510.0 ± 81.75 m (mean ± SD) respectively).

Conclusion: A physically active lifestyle improves and preserves the functional exercise capacity reflected by longer 6-MWD among the physically active niqab-wearing Saudi adult healthy women compared with less active women who did not wear the niqab.


Understanding a membrane’s morphology is important for controlling its final performance during protein immobilization. Porous, symmetric membranes were prepared from a polyvinylidene fluoride/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone solution by phase inversion process, to obtain membrane with various microsized pores. The concentration and surface area of aprotein dotted on the membrane surface were measured by staining with Ponceau S dye. The dotted protein was further scanned and analysed to perform quantitative measurements for relative comparison. The intensity of the red protein spot and its surface area varied depending on the membrane pore size, demonstrating the dependence of protein immobilization on this factor. The membrane with the smallest pore size (M3) showed the highest protein spot intensity and surface area when examined at different protein concentrations. An increase in the applied protein volume showed a linearity proportional trend to the total surface area, and an uneven round dot shape was observed at a large applied volume of protein solution.


Porous superhydrophobic layer of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was created by a simple approach on the Poly(vinylidenefluoride) (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes. Acetone and ethanol mixtures with different volume ratios were used as the non-solvent on the coating surface. A 5:1 (v/v) acetone/ethanol ratio provided a porous surface with a 152° ± 3.2 water contact angle. The high contact angle could reduce membrane wettability for better carbon dioxide capture when the membrane was used as gas-liquid contactor in absorption processes. To assess the effect of the created superhydrophobic layer, the pristine and modified membranes were tested in a CO2 absorption system for ten days. The results revealed that the absorption flux in the modified membrane was higher than that of pristine membrane.


The Integrated Zone Comparison Technique (IZCT) was utilized with computerized polygraph instrumentation and the Academy for Scientific Investigative Training’s Horizontal Scoring System ASIT PolySuite algorithm, as part of a blind study in the detection of deception. This paper represents a synergy analysis of combining fMRI only deception data with each of the three individual physiological parameters that are used in polygraph. They include the electro-dermal response (EDR), pneumo, and cardio measurements. In addition, we compared the detection accuracy analysis using each single parameter by itself. The fMRI score and each individual polygraph parameter score on individual subjects were averaged to establish an overall score.


The present study was designed to measure the mean values of body mass index (BMI), random blood sugar/ fast ing blood sugar (RBS/FBS) tests, and Hb A1c and to investigate the role of a genetic variant rs1544410 in the VDR gene in a Pakistani cohort. For this purpose, a total of 917 samples including 469 diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM), 145 DM type 1 (T1DM), and 303 healthy control were collected. Out of the total sample set, 500 individuals (250 T2DM cases and 250 controls) were genotyped for rs1544410. It was found that 65 (26.0%) cases and 32 (12.8%) controls had homozygous AA, while 69 (27.6%) cases and 139 (55.6%) controls had heterozygous AG, and 116 (46.4%) cases and 79 (31.6%) controls had homozygous GG (χ2 = 41.81, p = 0.0001). In addition, a similar distribution of allele frequency was determined in cases and controls [p value = 0.866; odds ratio (OR) = 0.967; relative risk (RR) = 1.034]. A significant difference was observed in homozygous dominant [OR = 2.394 (1.501-3.816); RR = 1.46 (1.225-1.740); p = 0.003] and homozygous recessive models [OR = 2.970 (2.086-4.227); RR = 1.798 (1.501-2.154); p = <0.0001] analysis of rs1544410 in the VDR gene. These findings suggest that the VDR gene is associated with T2DM and genotype GG of genetic variant rs1544410 is the susceptible genotype in our Pakistani cohort.


Atrium is a popular architectural feature utilized widely by building designers and owners to bring various benefits such as adequate daylight, circulation spaces and surfaces for landscape applications. But atrium problems in tropical climates such as excessive daylight, glare and high temperature, which lead to increase building energy demand, have been reported. To avoid and reduce these unpleasant features, a side-lit atrium has been suggested. Although researchers proposed side-lit atrium to prevent common problems of atria, the lack of precedent research on this issue compels these authors to study atrium performance in hot and humid climate. So the research aims to examine two different atrium roof form types in terms of temperature and ventilation impacts in hot and humid climate of Malaysia using DesignBuilder as a simulation program. The results indicate lower temperature of side-lit model with better airflow pattern in comparison with top-lit model while the top-lit model provides higher air velocity at the air inlet and outlet.