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Open access

Bulent Agbuga, John Slovak, Ferman Konukman and Ilker Yilmaz

Comparison of Division II College Offensive and Defensive Football Players' Upper Body Strength Across One Repetition Maximum Test and The NFL-225 Test

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of predicting actual one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press strength from the National Football League (NFL) 225-test in college football players. Forty-one Division II college football players participated in this study. Participants' upper body strength scores were expressed relative to body weight and results were compared across both tests. Mayhew et al. equation was used to predict 1RM. A repeated measures ANOVA and one-way ANOVA was used to compare the groups. The present study found that the Mayhew equation overestimated relative upper body strength of college football players, while high degree of reliability was found between the actual 1RM and the NFL-225 tests [Wilks λ = 0.43, F (1,40) = 53.07, p = 0.000, Eta-squared = 0.57] and the correlation between these two tests was very high (r = 0.94, p<0.001). The present study also found that defensive players were stronger than offensive players when scores were expressed relative to body weight. The finding of this study indicates that the NFL-225 test's applicability may not be identical for all college players. This study elucidates some of the difficulties associated with predicting 1RM. However, while it is difficult to predict 1RM, testing using sub-maximal loads are far less time consuming especially when they involve a large number of athletes. The results of this study should facilitate coaches in choosing the most appropriate strength testing procedure for their programs.

Open access

Bulent Ekiz, Alper Yilmaz, Hulya Yalcintan, Akin Yakan, Ismail Yilmaz and Ihsan Soysal


Carcass and meat quality of male and female Anatolian water buffaloes were investigated using 10 carcasses from each gender. Gender had no influence on carcass characteristics, except warm carcass weight, which was 13% higher in males compared to females. Meat from male water buffaloes had higher ultimate pH and lightness (L*), but lower redness (a*) values than females. Meat samples aged for 21 days had lower values for expressed juice, cooking loss and Warner Bratzler shear force compared with those of 7-day aged ones. Meat samples aged for 21 days had higher L* value at 1 h and 24 h after cutting, a* value at 1 h after cutting compared with those of 7-day aged meat samples. Gender had no effect on meat sensory characteristics. Meat from male water buffaloes had higher proportions of C14:0, C18:3 n-3, C20:2 n-6, C20:3 n-3 and C20:4 n-6 and Σn-3 fatty acids and lower Σn-6/Σn-3 ratio compared with female water buffaloes.

Open access

Nazan ERDUMLU, Bulent OZIPEK, Goncagul YILMAZ and Ziynet TOPATAN


The use of clean water in textile finishing is both common and very expensive. Effluent water subjected to advanced methods of physical, chemical, and biological treatment could be used for this purpose. However, information obtained from industry and the literature shows that effluent water obtained from different finishing processes may be reused without being totally purified. In this paper, a method is proposed to determine the viability of reusing effluent water obtained from different textile finishing processes of cotton fabrics after just basic treatments. These treatments include; filtering, airing, pH regulating and ion exchange. Effluent water obtained in different textile finishing processes was analysed in terms of pH value, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), SS (Suspended Solids), colour, hardness and conductivity. Effluent water for treatment and the process where the treated water was reused were determined by means of the proposed method, based on a multiple criteria decision making approach. A laboratory scale trial was conducted to investigate the efficiency of treatment.

Open access

Ilker Yılmaz, Nevin Ergu, Ferman Konukman, Bulent Agbuğa, Erdal Zorba and Zafer Cimen

The Effects of Water Exercises and Swimming on Physical Fitness of Children with Mental Retardation

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of water exercises and swimming on physical fitness of children with mental retardation. Nine trainable and 7 educable male children (n = 16) were recruited from a rehabilitation center. The mean ages of the groups were 12.22±0.49 and 14.71±0.52 years, respectively. Training program was applied for 10-week, two times a week for 40 minute each session. Pre- and post-tests measurements were taken for cardiovascular endurance, muscle endurance, speed, static balance, and agility. Results showed that both groups improved significantly (p<0.05) in all dependent variables. Water exercises and swimming appear to be a viable and effective way to improve physical fitness capacity of the children with mental retardation.

Open access

Rukiye Nur Kaçmaz, Bülent Yılmaz, Mehmet Sait Dündar and Serkan Doğan


Computer-aided detection is an integral part of medical image evaluation process because examination of each image takes a long time and generally experts’ do not have enough time for the elimination of images with motion artifact (blurred images). Computer-aided detection is required for both increasing accuracy rate and saving experts’ time. Large intestine does not have straight structure thus camera of the colonoscopy should be moved continuously to examine inside of the large intestine and this movement causes motion artifact on colonoscopy images. In this study, images were selected from open-source colonoscopy videos and obtained at Kayseri Training and Research Hospital. Totally 100 images were analyzed half of which were clear. Firstly, a modified version of histogram equalization was applied in the pre-processing step to all images in our dataset, and then, used Laplacian, wavelet transform (WT), and discrete cosine transform-based (DCT) approaches to extract features for the discrimination of images with no artifact (clear) and images with motion artifact. The Laplacian-based feature extraction method was used for the first time in the literature on colonoscopy images. The comparison between Laplacian-based features and previously used methods such as WT and DCT has been performed. In the classification phase of our study, support vector machines (SVM), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and k nearest neighbors (k-NN) were used as the classifiers. The results showed that Laplacian-based features were more successful in the detection of images with motion artifact when compared to popular methods used in the literature. As a result, a combination of features extracted using already existing approaches (WT and DCT) and the Laplacian-based methods reached 85% accuracy levels with SVM classification approach

Open access

Ferman Konukman, Bülent Agbuĝa, Şamil Erdoĝan, Erdal Zorba, Giyasettin Demirhan and Ilker Yilmaz

Teacher-coach role conflict in school-based physical education in USA: a literature review and suggestions for the future

Teaching and coaching are two different occupational roles, and teachers who also coach have stressful work environments common to all educational settings, but each occupational role has specific stress and burnout problems. The responsibilities of physical education (PE) teachers and coaches are distinguishable from one another. These different roles and role conflicts may create stress among PE teachers who also coach. The history of physical education shows that there are contextual factors that promote PE teacher-coach role conflict. The aim of this paper is to analyse these contextual factors via using a literature review analysis and to provide suggestions about teacher-coach role conflict for school-based physical education in USA.