Ayodele Olufemi Morakinyo, Bolanle Olubusola Iranloye and Oluseyi Abimbola Ogunsola
Objectives. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a single (acute) and repeated (chronic) exposure to forced-swimming stressor on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and glycogen content in male rats.
Methods. Thirty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (12 weeks old) were divided randomly into five groups: control group, single exposure (SE) to forced-swim stressor, repeated exposure to forced-swim stressor for 7 days (RE7), 14 days (RE14) and 28 days (RE28). Glucose tolerance test and Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were undertaken on fasting rats to obtain glucose and insulin profiles. ELISA was performed to assess plasma insulin and corticosterone levels. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, high- and low-density lipoproteins, hepatic and skeletal glycogen content were also determined.
Results. Repeated exposure to stressor induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in the experimental rats. Results showed that all RE groups exhibited a significantly higher area under the curve compared with others (p=0.0001); similarly, HOMA-IR increased (p=0.0001) in all RE groups compared with control. Prolonged exposure to stressor significantly increased the plasma insulin and corticosterone levels but decreased the glycogen content in the liver and skeletal muscle when compared with the control group. Additionally, chronic stressor significantly increased the total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, however, acute stressor produced significantly elevated high-density lipoproteins level.
Conclusions. In conclusion, repeated exposure to forced-swimming stressor induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats by disrupting the insulin sensitivity as well as heightening the glycogenolysis in the liver and skeletal muscle. Acute stressor was unable to cause glucose intolerance and insulin resistance but it appears that may have a positive effect on the lipid metabolism.
Ayodele Olufemi Morakinyo, Titilola Aderonke Samuel and Daniel Abiodun Adekunbi
Objective. We investigated the effects of magnesium supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress as well as the concentration of insulin receptor and glucose transporter-4 in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-2 diabetic (T2D) rats. Methods. Rats were divided into four groups designated as: 1) control (CTR); 2) diabetic untreated (DU); 3) diabetic treated with 1 mg of Mg/kg diet (Mg1-D); and 4) diabetic treated with 2 mg of Mg/kg diet (Mg2-D). T2D was induced with a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of freshly prepared streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) aft er an initial i.p. injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg). Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MAD) and glutathione content, insulin receptors (INSR) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4), fasting insulin and glucose levels were measured, and insulin resistance index was calculated using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results. Magnesium supplementation improved glucose tolerance and lowered blood glucose levels almost to the normal range. We also recorded a noticeable increase in insulin sensitivity in Mg-D groups when compared with DU rats. Lipid perturbations associated T2D were significantly attenuated by magnesium supplementation. Fasting glucose level was comparable to control values in the Mg-D groups while the HOMA-IR index was significantly lower compared with the DU rats. Magnesium reduced MDA but increased glutathione concentrations compared with DU group. Moreover, INSR and GLUT4 levels were elevated following magnesium supplementation in T2D rats. Conclusion. These findings demonstrate that magnesium may mediate effective metabolic control by stimulating the antioxidant defense, and increased levels of INSR and GLUT4 in diabetic rats.