A short survey is reported on the advantageous and disadvantageous properties of soft magnetic glassy tapes to build stator and rotor elements for the increase of motor efficiency. The relative high saturation magnetization and the relative permeability of these alloy groups seem to be promising in this application field. On the other hand, the sample thickness (30 µm) displays limitations in terms of a filling factor. High hardness of tapes hinders the effectivity of mechanical shaping. Laser cutting can be successful as shaping method, presuming that the extension (thickness) of heat affected zone (HAZ) can be successfully reduced below 50µm, avoiding the brittleness evolution.
Social and Structural Changes in Hungarian Talent Care: The case of a sports club
Sociology of sport lacks information on the proper demographic description of athletes who are selected into a national sport talent care program. Therefore, the current study attempted to fill the gap in this area. Research from abroad has demonstrated that whilst sport appears to be a democratic social environment, the initial opportunities are not exactly equal. The majority of elite athletes come from the upper-middle class rather than the lower social classes (Coakley 1997, Eitzen & Sage 1997). The objective of the current study was to identify the social status of young athletes, from the Central School of Sports in Budapest, who took part in a Hungarian government-sponsored national sports talent care program. Another objective of the study was to assess possible changes on the social ladder with time. We were able to address the second issue through the examination of data collected 30 years ago in the same milieu and to compare it - with certain precautions - with a similar dataset obtained in the course of the current work. The interpretation of the data was based on the statistical analysis of the examined periods. The main findings indicate that most athletes in the Central School of Sports come from an upper-middle class social background, but there were some differences in the various types of sport. For example, pentathletes and water polo players come from the most advantaged social class. It appears then, that membership in a given social class is more important than the fair skill-based selection process.
The study focused on the peculiarities of fat accumulation during maturation. The main purpose of the study was trifold: to detect the alterations in fat gain during breast maturation; to examine fat accumulation after physiological maturation and the influence of breast maturation and sport activity on fatness. The subjects were athlete (N=1428) and non-athlete (N=1030) girls. They were grouped by the stages of breast development. Fat accumulation was followed up until four years after menarche. Regional fat distribution was examined on the basis of skinfolds taken at triceps, scapula, abdomen and thigh. Progressing with breast development, body fat percent increased in both groups, though in non-athletes a decrease was found in stage B4. During sexual maturation the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue decreased on the extremities and increased on the trunk. Non-athletes stored more fat on their upper trunk, while athletes did it on their lower trunk. After menarche the differences between athlete and non-athlete girls were preserved. In conclusion it may be stated that during sexual maturation the regional apposition trend of body fat was similar for athletes and non-athletes. The differences emerged in the relative distributions. Athlete girls accumulated proportionally more fat on their lower body, representing better the female-type distribution of body fat than non-athlete girls.
The practice of Hungarian rural development planning shows the lack of future orientation. The time horizon of planning is short-term, the strategic way of thinking beyond 7–10 years long period is missing or it has great deficiencies. It is not even considering the long-term opportunities. Therefore, the short term plans are not derived from established perspectives, they do not have sufficient grounds. This paper briefly summarises the achievements of a research activity to make an attempt to prove that despite the limitations in understanding and unfolding the future, it is possible to provide useful information for the planning of rural development in 20 – 30 years or even on several more years. This is based on pre-scenarios, highlighting the high efficiency and unexpected weak signals of the driving forces.
Objectives. Evaluation of the characteristics of sleep apnea (SA) in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure, considering that undiagnosed SA could contribute to early rehospitalization. Methods. 56 consecutive patients (13 women, 43 men, mean age 63.12 years) with acute heart failure, in stable condition, underwent nocturnal polygraphy before hospital discharge. The type and severity of SA was determined. Besides descriptive statistics, correlations between the severity of SA and clinical and paraclinical characteristics were also analyzed (t-test, chi-square test, significancy at alpha < 0.05). Results. 12 (21.4%) subjects were free of SA (AHI - apnea-hipopnea index <5/h), 15 (26.7%) had mild SA (AHI=5-14/h), 17 (30.3%) had moderate SA (AHI 15-30/h), and 12 (21.4 %) had severe SA (AHI>30/h). The apnea was predominantly obstructive (32 cases vs. 12 with central SA). Comparing the patients with mild or no SA with those with severe SA, we did not find statistically significant correlations (p>0.05) between the severity of SA and the majority of main clinical and paraclinical characteristics - age, sex, BMI, cardiac substrates of heart failure, comorbidities. Paradoxically, arterial hypertension (p=0.028) and atrial fibrillation (p=0.041) were significantly more prevalent in the group with mild or no SA. Conclusions. Before discharge, in the majority of patients hospitalized with acute heart failure moderate and severe SA is present, and is not related to the majority of patient related factors. Finding of significant SA in this setting is important, because its therapy could play an important role in preventing readmissions and improving prognosis.
In type A aortic dissection (AoD) an early and accurate diagnosis is essential to improve survival, by applying urgent surgical repair. 3D transthoracic echocardiography (3D-TTE), an advanced noninvasive imaging technique, could offer a comprehensive evaluation of the ascending aorta and aortic arch in this regard. Both modalities of real-time 3D imaging – live 3D and full-volume aquisition – proved to be useful in evaluating the localization and extent of AoD. Our case illustrates the utility of 3D-TTE in the complex assessment AoD. By providing the proper anatomical dataset, 3D-TTE could facilitate considerably the diagnosis of type A AoD.
Optimal timing of hospital discharge in patient with acute heart failure (AHF) is an important factor of preventing rehospitalizations.
Aim. To evaluate the value of a simplified lung ultrasound (LUS) protocol in assessing pre-discharge status of patients with AHF, correlating the US findings with the values of NT-proBNP levels.
Methods. 24 patients (18 men, 6 women, mean age 68,2 years) hospitalized with acute heart failure underwent LUS examination in the afternoon of the day before hospital discharge, applying a simplified LUS protocol, using three basal examination areas on the right side (anterior, lateral and posterior) and two basal examination areas on the left side (lateral and posterior). The LUS score was represented by the sum of B lines. In the next morning the value of NT-proBNP was also determined. The correlation between LUS findings and NT-proBNP values was analyzed using Fisher's exact test (significant if alpha<0,05).
Results. 6 patients had <15 B lines, 16 patients had >15 B lines and 2 patients had pleural effusion on LUS, while 16 patients had the value of NT-proBNP >1000pg/ml at discharge. The results of LUS examination correlated significantly (p=0.0013) with the NT-proBNP values – only one patient not having increased NT-proBNP in the group with >15 B lines.
Conclusions. Despite a relatively good clinical status, the majority of patients had high NT-proBNP values at the time of hospital discharge. LUS proved to be a useful tool in identifying patients with subclinical congestion reflected also by the high NT-proBNP levels. These patients may need a prolongation of hospitalization and/or a more careful follow-up to prevent early readmission.
The purpose of this work is to determine the pre-exponential factor (A) and the reaction activation energy (E) of decomposition reactions that are needed for Fire Dynamics Simulation (FDS) using Derivatograph Q 1500D. The materials we investigated: Pine Wood Board (PWB), Multilayered Parquet Board (MPB), Particleboard Core (PBC) and Oriented Standard Board (OSB).
Aim: To evaluate the value of a more closed perioperative ECG follow-up in the investigation and forecasting of cardiovascular events during and after hospital admission.
Methods: We included in the study 30 asymptomatic patients from cardiac point of view (14 women, 16 men, mean age 63 years), who underwent total hip arthroplasty. ECGs were performed on the day before surgery, on the day of surgery, after the intervention, and on the 3rd day. We looked for the correlations between ECG changes and clinical events.
Results: The commonest postoperative new ECG changes were QTc prolongation (14 patients -46,6%) and sinus tachycardia (8 patients - 26,6%). There were no major cardiac events during hospitalization, and we found possible correlations in two cases between perioperative ST-T changes and postdischarge clinical events: one exitus and one case of ischemic heart disease.
Conclusions: Our data do not support the efficacy of a more closed, routine ECG follow-up in the studied, low risk patient population, but new perioperative ST-T changes always have to be taken into account.
In the 21. century, the job of a horticulturist is made easier with the help of a thermogradient table, with which the developmental stage of plants in different temperature conditions can be observed, this way, a plant's optimal ambient temperature can be found. The price of a thermo-gradient table is very high, it can reach thousands of euros. This is the reason why we had the idea of making our own thermo-gradient table, which is much more competitive, and can ease our institution horticulturist’s work.