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  • Author: Attila Nagy x
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Cefa Nature Park had, even before its establishment, a protection status directed especially towards the bird fauna, in which varied and vast wetlands, forests, meadows and agricultural lands with low agricultural activity are found. The present paper shows the results of a long period of monitoring (1991-2012) the bird fauna from this area. There are currently 78 identified species, protected and recorded in the Annex I from Birds Directive 79/409/CEE. Another 168 species were identified, that are not found on the above list, thus reaching a total number of 246 species (66% of the total bird fauna of Romania). Quantitative data is also shown with respect to the size of these species population, as well as the belonging to the sedentary or migratory species group. All of the results support the fact that Cefa Nature Park is an area of major importance for bird fauna in the Northwestern territory of Romania, and especially for those species that need wetland habitats for nesting, passage or wintering


Introduction: The transition from the limited information environment to the extended information world has fundamentally transformed the communication and information-gathering processes. The new learning spheres (non-formal and informal learning, i.e. lifelong learning) require rethinking learning strategies.

Purpose: The generation logic and knowledge of different generations can help making the learning process more effective and efficient. It also helps, if we know which generation exists and which one is a “fictious generation”. According to theory of Mannheim and the model of Prensky, we can describe Generation X, Y and Z, but now the name of the next generation is being established.

Methods: With the help of traditional desk research, such as literature search, data mining and web search, this article covers the origin of Generation Alpha (Alfa), the possible characteristics attributed to this age group, and tries to discern if this concept is meaningful in terms of the generation paradigm.

Conclusions: Overall, it is apparent that while the existence of X, Y, and Z generations is demonstrable, the naming and characterizing the Alfa generation is important for marketing purposes, scientifically there is no evidence for “Generation Alpha”.


The resilience of a region may affect how it reacts to economic crises and exogenous shocks. In a complex study, it is not sufficient merely to have knowledge of all the macro-indices of the regions, but it is also necessary to study internal micro-structures. This study introduces the regional homogeneity index, using a novel approach and as yet unused indicators by means of the example of two neighbouring NUTS 2 statistical regions. The results can be useful for understanding the regions’ economic development. The methodology and indicators created may also be suitable for European regional pilot research projects.


Red-footed Falcons are gregarious trans-equatorial migrants, forming up to several thousand strong roost sites after the breeding season and before commencing migration. This pre-migration period is presumed to play a major role in defining the survival of long-range migrants. Here we investigate the autumn movements of 8 individuals caught and satellite-tagged within the Carpathian Basin. We found that birds may use multiple roost sites that can be separated by large distances. A single individual’s home range was 88 km2 (80% kernel home range) and was near concentrical to the roost site. Two individuals travelled to southern Ukraine soon after tag-deployment. Our results demonstrate that even a small number of satellite tagged birds show behavioural plasticity in terms of roost site selection indicating that post-breeding foraging habitat choice decisions may have substantial variability. The night localization points of birds marked out 2 and 5 yet unknown potential roost sites in Hungary and in the Ukraine, respectively. Using the data of an international weekly survey (2006-2011) carried out in the Carpathian Basin, we cross-referenced the departure dates of tagged individuals with the 6 year means of counted individuals. The tagged birds initiated migration with the first 25% percent of the surveyed population.


In Dobrogea, a core area for wind energy exploitation in Romania, existing knowledge regarding the intensity and pattern of bird migration is limited. In the absence of enumerated data, wind farms may be constructed in areas where large aggregations of migrants pass. In this study we recorded the intensity of the autumn migration of soaring birds in three locations within the Măcin Mountains, where wind farms are planned to be built. The locations chosen were at Văcăreni, Greci and Cerna villages. Furthermore we categorized all migrating individuals as threatened or non-threatened by the planned wind farms, based on their migration routes and height at local scale. At Văcăreni 4.716 individuals were counted, 3.394 raptors and 1.322 non-raptors, at Greci 2.387 individuals, 2.064 raptors and 323 non-raptors, and finally at Cerna, 5.268 individuals, 4.529 raptors and 739 non-raptors. At all three sites a significant proportion of birds, both raptors and non-raptors, were found to be threatened by the proposed wind farms. At Văcăreni 68.33% of raptors and 84.95% of non-raptors were at threat, at Greci 44.48% and 54.18% respectively, and at Cerna 59.37% and 94.86%. As such we conclude that intensive migration occurs in North Dobrogea and wind farms would have a considerable negative impact on migrants in the studied areas


Soil compaction causes important physical modifications at the subsurface soil, especially from 10 to 30 cm depths. Compaction leads to a decrease in infiltration rates, in saturated hydraulic conductivity, and in porosity, as well as causes an increase in soil bulk density. However, compaction is considered to be a frequent negative consequence of applied agricultural management practices in Slovakia.

Detailed determination of soil compaction and the investigation of a compaction impact on water content, water penetration depth and potential change in water storage in sandy loam soil under sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was carried out at 3 plots (K1, K2 and K3) within an experimental site (field) K near Kalinkovo village (southwest Slovakia). Plot K1 was situated on the edge of the field, where heavy agricultural equipment was turning. Plot K2 represented the ridge (the crop row), and plot K3 the furrow (the inter–row area of the field). Soil penetration resistance and bulk density of undisturbed soil samples was determined together with the infiltration experiments taken at all defined plots.

The vertical bulk density distribution was similar to the vertical soil penetration resistance distribution, i.e., the highest values of bulk density and soil penetration resistance were estimated at the plot K1 in 15–20 cm depths, and the lowest values at the plot K2. Application of 50 mm of water resulted in the penetration depth of 30 cm only at all 3 plots. Soil water storage measured at the plot K2 (in the ridge) was higher than the soil water storage measured at the plot K3 (in the furrow), and 4.2 times higher than the soil water storage measured at the most compacted plot K1 on the edge of the field. Results of the experiments indicate the sequence in the thickness of compacted soil layers at studied plots in order (from the least to highest compacted ones): K2–K3–K1.

Osl Dates and Heavy Mineral Analysis of Upper Quaternary Sediments from the Valleys of the Ér and Berettyó Rivers

The study of the evolution of the river network in the Great Hungarian Plain has been based on sedimentological, neotectonical, morphological investigations, heavy mineral analysis and complementary OSL dating. The study area extends from the Körös sub-basin into the Ér and Berettyó river valleys which are situated northeast from the subsiding basin and northwest from the uplifting Apuseni Mountains.

The OSL ages provide evidence that a large river run in the Ér-valley at least from 46±4 to 39±4 ka. It deposited garnet and magnetite-ilmenite-rich sediments, similar to the recent Berettyó, Ér and Sebes- Körös rivers and less intensive the modern Tisza river. These sediments originated from the nearly located metamorphic and Neogene volcanic rocks and contain some reworked older clastic sedimentary rocks from the northern part of the Apuseni Mountains. These OSL ages fit the active tectonic phase of the Érmellék depression. Loess is 49-47, 44, 39 and 25 ka old and aeolian sands 10 to 9 ka were dated. Their heavy mineral composition and that of fluvial sands is similar.


The numerical ages available for the sediments on the Danube terraces in the Pest Plain are scarce. In this study, we present quartz OSL and K feldspar post-IR IRSL290 ages for the sandy fluvial, aeolian and slope sediments collected from Danube terraces IIb, III and V.

The feldspar post-IR IRSL290 ages without residual dose subtraction are older than the quartz OSL ages, except for one sample, but the two sets of ages are overlapping within one or two sigma errors.

In the bleaching experiment under natural sunlight during summer, an unbleachable component ranging from 2.5±0.7 Gy to 5.2±0.3 Gy after 30 h exposure to bright sunshine is observed and it corresponds to 3−8% of the measured K feldspar post-IR IRSL290 equivalent doses. These facts indicate that residual dose subtraction would be necessary before age calculation, in most cases.

The saturated fluvial gravelly sand of terrace V of the Danube is older than ~ 296 ka based on feldspar post-IR IRSL290 measurements. This age does not contradict the traditional terrace chronology and the earlier published age data of this terrace. The other studied sediments on the surface of the terraces V, III and IIb deposited much later than the formation of these terraces. They infer aeolian activity and fluvial sedimentation of small streams during the MIS 3 and MIS 2 periods. The age of the dated dune sands with coeval aeolian sediments in Hungary indicate the cold and dry periods with strong wind activity of the Late Weichselian.


In this study, different aspects of anemia in chronic kidney disease have been observed, starting from the fact that the severity of anemia is associated with the degree of kidney dysfunction, the main cause being the erythropoietin deficiency, which is synthesized mostly by the kidneys. 58 persons were included in this study, 19 patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease, 18 patients with chronic kidney disease who received kidney transplantation and 21 apparently healthy persons. We evaluated the serum level of erythropoietin, serum creatinine, proteinuria, the glomerular filtration rate, the erythrocyte parameters and the correlations between them. The prevalence of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease was of 51.35%. The hemoglobin concentration in patients with kidney transplantation (12.4 ± 2.7 g/dL) and in non-dialysis-dependent patients (11.7 ± 1.4 g/dL) is significantly different compared to the apparently healthy persons (14.6 ± 0.8 g/dL) (p<0.05). In the case of the non-dialysis-dependent patients who were not treated with erythropoiesis- stimulating agents we found positive associations between the glomerular filtration rate and the number of erythocytes (r = 0.71), hemoglobin (r = 0.65) and hematocrit (r = 0.73), as well as negative associations between creatinine and the number of erythrocytes (r = -0.72), hemoglobin (r = -0.86) and hematocrit (r = -0.88). In patients with kidney transplantation and anemia we observed positive correlations between erythropoietin and the number of erythrocytes (r = 0.69), between the glomerular filtration rate and the number of erythrocytes (r = 0.78) and erythropoietin (r = 0.97), as well as negative correlations between proteinuria and the number of erythrocytes (r= -0.89), hemoglobin (r= -0.72), hematocrit (r = -0.72), and erythropoietin (r = -0.67), and between creatinine and the number of erythrocytes (r = -0.75) and erythropoietin (r = -0.86).


Objective: Miconazole, an imidazole antifungal derivative, is a very hydrophobic compound, a major drawback in obtaining topical pharmaceutical formulations with optimal bioavailability. Cyclodextrins (CDs) may increase local drug delivery by enhancing the drug release and/or permeation. The aim of the study is the characterization of inclusion complexes between miconazole and different CD derivatives.

Methods: Several CD derivatives were tested in the experiments. The binary systems between miconazole and different CDs were prepared in 1:1 molar ratios by physical-mixture and kneading methods. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) methods were used to characterize solid state interactions between miconazole and CDs in their binary systems.

Results: The FT-IR analysis suggests the formation of a new solid phase, indicating a molecular interaction between the components. The DSC analysis sustains the hypothesis of formation of partial inclusion complexes between miconazole nitrate and CD.

Conclusion: The thermic behaviour of the complexes depends both on the preparation method and the composition of the products.