Milica Vranešević, Andrea Salvai, Atila Bezdan and Radoš Zemunac
The lowland area of the southeastern part of the Carpathian Basin is exposed to extreme hydrological conditions. The monitoring and analysis of the excess inland water are necessary in order to understand the scope and direction of the development of this type of flooding. When solving the problem of the drainage of an area and dimensioning drainage systems, one of the most important steps is to calculate the rate of runoff. Before calculating the rate of runoff, it is necessary to perform various analysis such as: hydrological, hydrogeological, pedological and land use analysis. The use of empirical formulas by different authors is one of the methods for determining the rate of runoff. These formulas can be of regional character, while some are applicable in different parts of the world. In this paper, the runoff coefficient and rate of runoff were calculated as indicators of the efficiency of the area drainage, employing the formulas by Nemet and Turazzo. The emphasis was put on the usage of modern tools and databases of soil characteristics while using a “traditional” method to determine rate of runoff. The obtained results demonstrate that the rate of runoff which reflects the current state of the drainage basin is very similar to the rate of runoff used for dimensioning of drainage system. The problem of retaining smaller amounts of water that remains even after the anticipated drainage deadlines can be solved with the regular maintenance of amelioration canals and additional ameliorative measures.
Milica Ilić, Milica Vranešević, Atila Bezdan and Boško Blagojević
The composition of water used for irrigation has a significant impact on the production characteristics of the land, yield and irrigation equipment, and therefore its analysis, or assessment of the usability of irrigation water is very important. In this paper, the potential impact of the waters of the Banat watercourses of Moravica, Karaš and Nera is assessed on the basis of monthly water samples from the measuring stations of Vatin, Dobričevo and Kusić, for the period of April-September from the year 2007 to 2017. The assessment was carried out using the classification of irrigation water: FAO, USLL and water categorization according to Nejgebauer, and the Serbian Water Quality Index (SWQI). For the needs of these classifications, a total of 20 water parameters were analyzed: quality, physical, chemical and biological parameters. According to all the classifications, the analyzed watercourses can be a good source of water for irrigation in terms of its quality, but with control and appropriate measures, in particular, the presence of bicarbonate, but also the ratio of Na+ to Ca2+ and Mg2+.
Borivoj Pejić, Ksenija Mačkić, Predrag Randjelović, Ivan Valtner, Jelica Gvozdanović-Varga and Atila Bezdan
The objective of this study, conducted in the northern Serbian province of Vojvodina, was to analyze the effect of surface and subsurface drip irrigation (with drip lateral placement depths of 0.05 and 0.1 m) on the yield and water productivity of onions (Allium cepa L., var. ‘Holandski žuti’). The irrigation applied was scheduled on the basis of the water balance method. The daily evapotranspiration rate was computed using the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) based on the Hargreaves equation and the crop coefficient (kc). The irrigation rate was 30 mm, whereas the amount of water added by irrigation during the season was 150 mm. According to the results obtained, the onion yield under irrigated conditions was significantly higher than that under non-irrigated (control) conditions. Differences in the yield obtained using surface and subsurface irrigation were non-significant. The amounts of water used for evapotranspiration under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions were 363 mm and 220 mm, respectively. The value of the surface irrigation yield response factor (Ky) was 0.62, whereas the values of the subsurface irrigation yield response factor (Ky) were 0.61 (0.05 m) and 0.79 (0.1 m). Consequently, onions grown from sets proved moderately sensitive to water stress under regional climate conditions and could be grown without irrigation. The value of the irrigation water use efficiency (Iwue) ranged from 3.55 to 4.97 kg m−3, whereas the value of the evapotranspiration water use efficiency (ETwue) ranged from 3.72 to 5.22 kg m−3. The highest yield of onions was obtained using a drip lateral placement depth of 0.1 m, which is recommended for high-yielding onion production.
In the light of climate changes and in order to achieve stable crop production, irrigation represents an inevitable measure. Apart from water quantity, water quality represents a matter of concern. The paper elaborates on the presence of iron and manganese, as the main factors of causing the clogging of irrigation systems. The examined well water samples were taken mainly from Serbia. Photometric methods were applied for determining iron and manganese, and sensors for pH and conductivity. The obtained values were later subjected to a classification for irrigation water and the well water samples were classified according to the given thresholds. Precise location and presentation of the obtained results were done using the Geographic information system. The research has shown that from the analysed well water, only in 6 samples iron concentrations were increased up to a level classified as “extreme restrictions,” 4 samples as “warning,” while 31 samples of water were “adequate for irrigation.” Concerning manganese, in only one sample water was classified as “extreme restrictions,” in 14 as “warning” and in 26 as “adequate for irrigation.” pH and conductivity did not coincide with elevated concentrations of iron and manganese, but in the cases of exceeding thresholds, special attention should also be paid to these parameters.