Prenatal and Postnatal Diagnostics Problems of the Most Common Surgical Congenital Malformations of Newborns in Latvia
The most common surgical congenital malformations of newborns in Latvia are esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), duodenal atresia (DA) and abdominal wall defects — gastroschisis (G) and omphalocele (O). Survival and quality of life of these patients depend on precise pre- and postnatal diagnosis, timely and qualified treatment, and presence of associated anomalies and prematurity. The aim of our study was to define prenatal and postnatal diagnostic problems of the most common surgical congenital malformations of new-borns in Latvia. Data concerning pre- and postnatal diagnostics from case-records of patients treated in Children's Clinical University Hospital from 1998 till 2008 with esophageal atresia (58 patients), duodenal atresia (20 patients) and congenital abdominal wall defects — gastroschisis (17 patients) and omphalocele (28 patients) were analysed. Results showed that in case of EA prenatal USG was performed in 62% of expectant mothers and in neither case suspicion about. EA was expressed. In all patients after birth diagnostic placement of nasogastric tube was performed. In approximately one-third catheter of bad opaqueness was used. Preoperative bronchoscopy and esophagoscopy in order to exclude upper tracheoesophageal fistula were performed in two patients from the analysed group. In 40% of cases DA was diagnosed in prenatal ultrasonography. G was diagnosed prenatally in 29.4%, O — only in 3.7%.
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of serum cytokines in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA) and acute mesenteric lymphadenitis (AML). Data were collected prospectively on 7 to 18 year old children (October 2010 - October 2013): 31 patients with AA, 26 patients with AML, and 17 patients with elective non-inflammatory surgical disease were selected as controls. Serum levels of IL-10, IL-12(p70), IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, MCP-1, EGF, TNF-α were measured. Patients with AA had significantly increased serum levels of IL-6(1) (z = -3.72; p = 0.0002) and IL-10(1) (z = -2.81; p = 0.005) compared to AML before any treatment. The consecutive measurements of MCP-1 in serum demonstrated a significant difference within 72 hours in the AA group (Wilks’ Lambda test 0.80; F(2;29) = 3.5; p = 0.04) and also in the AML group (Wilks’ Lambda test 0.70; F(2;24) = 5.0; p = 0.01). The increased values of IL-6 and IL-10 were the most reliable cytokines one hour before surgical intervention for patients with AA. MCP-1 values changed significantly within 72 hours after patient hospitalisation but did not differ between the groups, and could not be a helpful serum biomarker in distinguishing patients with AA and AML.
The aim of the study was to determine whether the Alvarado score (AS) together with laboratory tests could be used to distinguish patients with acute appendicitis (AA) from acute mesenteric lymphadenitis (AML). Fifty-seven patients (7–18 years) with suspected AA were included in the prospective study (October 2010 – October 2013). Thirty-one patients underwent surgery for AA and 26 were not treated surgically and were diagnosed AML on ultrasonography. AS, white blood cell count (WBC), C – reactive protein (CRP) and serum cytokines (EGF, IL-10, IL-12(p70), IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, MCP-1, TNF-α) were obtained on admission and were compared between groups. Mean age of the 57 patients was 12.9 (SD 3.2). Accuracy (AR) for AS ≥ 7 alone was 73.7% for AA. Modified AS with certain serum cytokines seemed to be a reliable tool for initial differential diagnosis between AA and AML in school-age children. Based on these results, AS ≥ 7, WBC ≥ 10.7 × 103/µL and serum IL-6 ≥ 4.3 pg/mL assessed altogether will yield more sensitivity for AA. Also for further advanced diagnostics, we propose to take into account the serum IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, CRP cut-off levels in the differential diagnosis between complicated and uncomplicated AA to decide whether the treatment should be conservative or surgical.
Treatment strategies for acute uncomplicated appendicitis have evolved and now conservative antibacterial treatment is recommended over surgical treatment, especially for paediatric patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbiota in paediatric patients with acute uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis, and antibacterial susceptibility of the causative microorganisms. Bacteriological identification was conducted using the VITEK2 analyser. Antibacterial susceptibility tests were performed and the results were evaluated in accordance with the recommendations of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) “Clinical breakpoints and dosing of antibiotics” (Version 7.0, January 2019). Serodiagnosis of Yersinia enterocolitica was performed using indirect haemagglutination. The results revealed differences in microbiota in cases of acute complicated and acute uncomplicated appendicitis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified more frequently in cases of acute complicated appendicitis. Mixed culture was prevalent in cases of both acute complicated and acute uncomplicated appendicitis. Very few positive extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) Escherichia coli cultures were identified. Most of strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resistant to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, ertapenem, ampicillin and cefotaxime. Some of E. coli isolates were resistant to ampicillin and to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid.