A novel analytical approach for reducing the consumption of organic solvents in the charge transfer-based spectrophotometric analysis: Application in the analysis of certain antihypertensive drugs
The present study describes the development of a novel analytical approach that can reduce by 50-fold the consumption of organic solvents in the charge transfer (CT)-based spectrophotometric analysis. The proposed approach employed 96-microwell assay plates for carrying out the reaction. The CT reaction between the electron-donating analyte and electron-accepting reagent was performed in microwells (200-μL of organic solvent) and the color signals were measured with a microwell-plate reader. Optimum conditions for the proposed approach were established for two antihypertensive drugs, namely ramipril (RML) and lisinopril (LSL) as model compounds for the electron-donating analytes, and 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) as a π-electron acceptor. Under the optimum conditions, Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range of 6-100 and 6-60 μg mL-1 for RML and LSL, respectively. The limits of detection were 0.97 and 1.10 μg mL-1 for RML and LSL, respectively. The precision of the methods was satisfactory; the values of relative standard deviations did not exceed 1.1 %. The proposed approach was successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms with good accuracy and precision. The results were comparable with those of the reported methods. The approach described herein is of great practical value in pharmaceutical analysis because it reduces the exposure of analysts to the toxic effects of organic solvents, lowers the analysis cost by 50-fold, and it has a high throughput property. Although the approach was validated for RML and LSL, the same methodology could be used for any electron-donating analyte for which a CT-reaction can be performed.