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Open access

Ibrahim Darwish, Ashraf Mahmoud and Abdul-Rahman Al-Majed

A novel analytical approach for reducing the consumption of organic solvents in the charge transfer-based spectrophotometric analysis: Application in the analysis of certain antihypertensive drugs

The present study describes the development of a novel analytical approach that can reduce by 50-fold the consumption of organic solvents in the charge transfer (CT)-based spectrophotometric analysis. The proposed approach employed 96-microwell assay plates for carrying out the reaction. The CT reaction between the electron-donating analyte and electron-accepting reagent was performed in microwells (200-μL of organic solvent) and the color signals were measured with a microwell-plate reader. Optimum conditions for the proposed approach were established for two antihypertensive drugs, namely ramipril (RML) and lisinopril (LSL) as model compounds for the electron-donating analytes, and 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) as a π-electron acceptor. Under the optimum conditions, Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range of 6-100 and 6-60 μg mL-1 for RML and LSL, respectively. The limits of detection were 0.97 and 1.10 μg mL-1 for RML and LSL, respectively. The precision of the methods was satisfactory; the values of relative standard deviations did not exceed 1.1 %. The proposed approach was successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms with good accuracy and precision. The results were comparable with those of the reported methods. The approach described herein is of great practical value in pharmaceutical analysis because it reduces the exposure of analysts to the toxic effects of organic solvents, lowers the analysis cost by 50-fold, and it has a high throughput property. Although the approach was validated for RML and LSL, the same methodology could be used for any electron-donating analyte for which a CT-reaction can be performed.

Open access

Ibrahim Darwish, Samiha Hussein, Ashraf Mahmoud and Ahmed Hassan

A sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of H2-receptor antagonists by means of N-bromosuccinimide and p-aminophenol

A simple, accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method for determination of H2-receptor antagonists: cimetidine (CIM), famotidine (FAM), nizatidine (NIZ), and ranitidine hydrochloride (RAN) has been fully developed and validated. The method was based on the reaction of these drugs with NBS and subsequent measurement of the excess N-bromosuccinimide by its reaction with p-aminophenol to give a violet colored product (λmax at 552 nm). Decrease in the absorption intensity (ΔA) of the colored product, due to the presence of the drug, was correlated with its concentration in the sample solution. Different variables affecting the reaction were carefully studied and optimized. Under optimal conditions, linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (0.9988--0.9998) were found between ΔA values and the corresponding concentrations of the drugs in a concentration range of 8--30, 6--22, 6--25, and 4--20 μg mL-1 for CIM, FAM, NIZ, and RAN, respectively. Limits of detection were 1.22, 1.01, 1.08, and 0.74 μg mL-1 for CIM, FAM, NIZ, and RAN, respectively. The method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and robustness; the results were satisfactory. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of the above mentioned drugs in bulk substance and in pharmaceutical dosage forms; percent recoveries ranged from 98.5 ± 0.9 to 102.4 ± 0.8% without interference from the common excipients. The results obtained by the proposed method were comparable with those obtained by the official methods.

Open access

Ashraf Elbahrawy, Ahmed Elwassief, Abdallah Mahmoud Abdallah, Arafat Kasem, Sadek Mostafa, Khaled Makboul, Mohamed Salah Ali, Ahmed Alashker, Ahmed Maher Eliwa, Hossam Shahbah, Mohamed Abdellah Othman, Mohamed Hanafy Morsy, Mohamed Ali Abdelbaseer and Hafez Abdelhafeez

Abstract

Background and Objectives

Studies on hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Egypt supported a strong role for various exposures in the health-care setting. In this study, we attempted to estimate the frequency of HCV exposure among Egyptian health-care workers (HCWs).

Methods

Five hundred and sixty-four (564) HCWs were included in this study. Two hundred and fifty-eight (45.74%) were health-care providers and 306 (54.25%) were non-health-care providers. All HCWs completed both the study questionnaire and provided a blood sample for anti-HCV testing by third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Subsequently, anti-HCV-positive samples were tested for HCV RNA using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Results

The mean age of included HCWs was 33.0 ± 9.8 years; of them, 319 (56.56%) were males and 245 (43.44%) were females. The mean duration of health-care work was 9.3 ± 6.7 years. The frequency of antibody against hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) among included HCWs was 8.7% (n = 49). Old age and prolonged duration of health-care work were significantly associated with anti-HCV seropositivity. Forty (81.63%) of 49 with anti-HCV-positive HCWs had positive hepatitis C viremia. The frequency of HCV RNA positivity increased with age. The frequency of eradicated past infection among nurses (36.85%) was markedly higher than that (6.7%) detected in non-health-care providers.

Conclusion

High rate of HCV infection is detected in Egyptian HCWs in rural Lower Egypt governorates. Health-care providers seem to eradicate HCV infection more frequently than non-health-care providers. National screening and treatment of infected HCWs are recommended.

Open access

Reem Elmaghloub, Ashraf Elbahrawy, Gamal El Didamony, Ahmed Elwassief, Abdel-Gawad Saied Mohammad, Ahmed Alashker, Hendawy Zedan, Abdallah Mahmoud Abdallah, Mahmoud Haddad Hemidah, Amr Elmestikawy, Mohamed El Fayoumei, Hossam Shahba, Ahmed Gawish, Mohamed Hanafy Morsy, Alaa Hashim, Mohamed Ali Abdelbaseer, Yoshihide Ueda, Tsutomu Chiba and Hafez Abdelhafeez

Abstract

Background and Objectives

Health Care Workers (HCWs) are at a high risk of needle stick injuries and HBV infection in Egypt; this problem is further aggravated by low Hepatitis B (HB) vaccination coverage. Limited data are available on the prevalence of HBV infection in Egyptian HCWs. In this study, we aimed to assess the HBV infection rate and genotypes among Egyptian HCWs.

Methods

Five hundred and sixty-four (564) HCWs were included. Of them, 258 (45.74%) were health care providers and 306 (54.25%) were non-health care providers. All HCWs completed both the study questionnaires and provided a blood sample for HBV testing. Indeed, all HCWs were tested for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to Hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HBVDNA was checked for HCWs who tested positive for HBsAg and/or anti-HBc, by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). HBVDNA positive HCWs were further subjected to HBV genotyping.

Results

The mean age of included HCWs was 33.0 ± 9.8 years, of whom 319 (56.56%) were males. The mean duration of health care work was 9.3 ± 6.7 years. The frequency of HBsAg and anti-HBc were 1.4%, and 24.5%, respectively. Old age and prolonged duration of health care work were significantly associated with anti-HBc seropositivity. Among 140 HCWs positive for HBsAg and/or anti-HBc, 14 (10 %) had positive HBVDNA by PCR. HBV/E (n = 7), HBV/D (n = 3) and co-infection with E and D (n = 4) genotypes were detected.

Conclusion

Egyptian HCWs have a significantly high rate of HBV exposure. The detection of HBV/E genotype among Egyptian HCWs suggests prevalent transmission of HBV/E among Egyptian populations.