Coal is a natural energy resource which is mainly used for energy production via combustion. Coal has nanocrystals embedded in it, formed during the coalification process, and is an ideal precursor for nano-carbon dots and diamonds. Herein, we report a facile top-down method to synthesise nanodots and diamonds of the size of 5 nm to 10 nm from three different types of coal by simple chemical leaching. TEM analysis revealed the formation of a mixture of carbon dots, graphene layers, and quantum dots in bituminous coal and sub-bituminous coal. Raman analysis confirmed the existence of synthesized nanodiamond and nano-carbon mixed phase with defects associated with it. It is concluded that graphene quantum dots, nanodiamonds, graphene sheets and carbon dots present in coal can be extracted by simple chemical treatment. These structures can be tuned to photoluminescent material for various optoelectronic applications or energy harvesting devices like super capacitors.