Artur Wdowiak, Grzegorz Bakalczuk, Elwira Dadej, Anita Wdowiak, Michał Filip, Edyta Wdowiak, Magdalena Lewicka and Magdalena Sulima
Pregnancy is a woman’s physiological state, covering the period from conception to birth. It is an important time in the life of every woman and the child’s father. Often, the parents-to-be find the new situation difficult. Childbirth classes may prove helpful during pregnancy and childbirth for mothers and fathers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of antenatal classes on parturition, according to the assessment of patients. The study was conducted at the Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski Provincial Specialist University Hospital in Lublin at the maternity ward on a group of 155 patients by means of diagnostic survey. The survey, by which the research material was collected, has been developed with the author’s own method. It has been shown that education and age of the participants influence the decision to use the services of childbirth education classes. Furthermore, the knowledge of breathing techniques, the use of birthing facilities, development of a plan for parturition and knowledge of methods of pain relief of childbirth have no impact on its duration. It was also shown that it is important to use relevant childbirth positions.
Introduction. The profession of midwife belongs to the medical ones. In the Polish legal system, the definition it is not of a legislative nature. It refers to liberal professions associated with practical medical knowledge. However, the profession of midwife has also been included in the catalog of liberal professions under the commercial law, and the legislature allows the practice of midwife in the form of a partnership.
Nevertheless, the majority of midwives working in Poland is employed on the basis of an employment relationship and a civil law agreement, while exercising practice in the form of partnership is not a frequent choice.
Aim. The purpose of this article is to profile the midwife partnership, including the approximation of its essence and purpose, as well as the rights and obligations of the partner, and discussion of the terms and conditions of the company's medical business.
Summary. Compared to other commercial companies, a limited liability partnership company is an attractive legal form for exercising the profession of midwife, primarily because of the partner's liability for the company's obligations. At the same time, the midwife partnership company, by combining both a reduction of personal responsibility, transparent representation with the use of possibility of appointing a board, and the possibility of accumulating financial and intellectual capital, meets the demands of the free services market and growing competition, thereby fostering service quality.
Hanna Ruszkowska, Magdalena Lewicka, Magdalena Sulima, Grzegorz Bakalczuk, Anna Taracha and Artur Wdowiak
Introduction. The structure was based on the World Health Organisation classification. The article includes description of main causes, diagnostics and treatment of menstrual disorders. Menstrual disorder is an abnormal condition in woman’s menstrual cycle. There are disorders of ovulation, cycle length, blood flow and others. The article reviews hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, disorders of hypothalamic pituitary axis, ovarian insufficiency, congenital malformations, hyperprolactinaemia, genetic syndromes, pituitary gland tumours and unclassified disorders like premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrhoea. Aim. Analysis of current literature with the focus on the systematisation of menstrual disorders. Conclusion. It is crucial for medical practitioners, who take care of a female patient, to have reliable knowledge of not only physiology, but also menstrual disorders. It will allow an early recognition of the symptoms, proper diagnosis and treatment in the optimal time.
Marta Piróg, Olga Padała, Marta Podgórniak, Maciej Putowski, Monika Sadowska and Wdowiak Artur
Aim. The aim of the study was to analyze the awareness of testicular cancer and prevention behaviors among male residents of the Lubelskie Province.
Material and methods. The study was conducted in 2015 and involved 131 men aged 17 to 38. A questionnaire designed by the authors was used as a research tool. The obtained results were analyzed statistically and the Chi2 test was used.
Results. Using a 0-5 scale, every fourth participant assessed their knowledge as 0, while only 7% assessed it as 5. The average level was 3.1 among students of medicine, while among students of other faculties it was 1.6. The Internet was cited as the most popular source of information about testicular cancer, while the healthcare staff was ranked as the last one. As much as 83.2% of men from the study group had never learnt how to perform testicular self-examination properly. Medical students were more likely to carry out this procedure regularly - 32%, compared to non-medical students - 12%.
Conclusions. The awareness of testicular cancer among the population of young men from the Lubelskie Province is insufficient, which is the main cause of their failure to perform regular self-examinations. The role of general practitioners is too little, despite the fact that most males consider them as the most reliable source of the information. Implementation of education and training programs for prevention of testicular cancer is required.
Patrycja Misztal-Okońska, Artur Wdowiak, Wojciech Krawczyk and Magdalena Młynarska
Introduction. Currently in Poland second demographic transition takes place, main features of it being the drop of the birth rate, postponing the decision of starting a family and having children. Moreover, more people decide to live alone and do not have offspring. These processes lead to great change of the demographic structure of the country, for example low birth rate do not allow for the generational replacement. In addition, with extending the life expectancy, we observe society aging. In the future perspective we can expect prolonging drop of the birth rate, and as a consequence, drop in the number of fertile population and growth in the percentage of after fertile age.
Aim. The aim of the paper was to collect opinions of young women on the preferred family model and eliciting reasons that in their opinion determine decision of resigning from having more children.
Material and methods. The method used was diagnosing survey and the technique was authors’ questionnaire. The number of 538 women aged 19 to 42 were questioned.
Results. The majority of the questioned women would prefer to have a family with two children (M-51.91) and three children (M-34.4). At the same time, the majority of the questioned mothers (62.13%) had one child, 31.49% – two children and only 5.10% – had three children. In the opinion of the questioned women, two main reasons for decision about having less children are the unemployment and low salaries. Large percentage of women (every second one) is afraid of the negative attitude of the employer towards maternity leaves.
Conclusions. One of the reason of giving up or postponing decisions about motherhood and having small number of children by those who decide to be mothers in Poland may be concerns about professional and economic situation.
Aleksandra Kępa, Grzegorz Bakalczuk, Zuzanna Toruń, Weronika Topyła, Maciej Putowski and Artur Wdowiak
Introduction. The approach to women, menopause and its consequences have changed – the perimenopausal period has stopped being treated as the end of femininity, career and sexual activity. However, symptoms coexisting with menopause influence health and female’s life quality. A decrease of sexual activity is observed as one of the most frequent symptoms, and it is induced by physiological and psychological factors.
Aim. Assessment of sexual life quality among women with menopause and defining the main factors influencing this area.
Material and methods. Thanks to an original questionnaire composed of 28 questions, single and multiple choice, 200 women in the perimenopausal period were examined between July and September 2017.
Results. The number of 200 women in perimenopausal period were chosen accidentally. The questionnaire was filled out via the Internet. Statistically significant factors occurred to be: level of education – higher education is connected with more frequent sexual activity, professional activity – 81% of working women remain sexually active while 73% of non-working females deny being sexually active. Hormonal Replacement Therapy does not influence the frequency of sexual contact but it alleviates vagina dryness, and provides a higher level of agitation during cohabitation.
Conclusion. Higher educated and professionally active women declare better life satisfaction and see themselves as attractive. However, marital status remains meaningless as well as Hormonal Replacement Therapy. It was observed that men from rural areas and towns initiate sexual contact more often.
Iwona Lisowska, Magdalena Lewicka, Magdalena Sulima, Weronika Topyła, Dominik Ruta and Artur Wdowiak
Introduction. It is well known that the period of maternity commencing from conception is accompanied by great emotions. Each stage is associated with specific behavior as well as the anxiety. The postpartum period is particularly exposed to stress and the ability to overcome it is very important, therefore the support of the loved ones is necessary. Aim. Assessment of the severity of the stress levels of women in childbirth. Material and methods. The research was conducted among 178 women during the postpartum period. The methods of diagnostic survey and own questionnaires were used, as well as PSS-10 standardized tool. Results. The study involved 178 women during the postpartum period. Interpretation of results for the level of stent PSS-10 showed low results - 23.6%, average - 32.6%, high - 43.8% due to a high stress level. Statistically significant factors are: marital status - married women experience lower stress levels, socioeconomic status - the higher socioeconomic status, the test group felt lower stress, birth time - there is a significant difference between women giving birth before 37 weeks and those giving birth in right term. Particular age group, place of residence, education, the number of births and the way of birth are not factors that differentiate levels of perceived stress of women in childbirth. Conclusions. Perinatal period is a time of dynamic changes characterized by high levels of stress. Age, place of residence, education, number of births and way of birth do not affect the level of stress, whereas marital status, socioeconomic situation and the date of birth determine stress levels for women.