The purpose of this article is to examine Khanty spatial ritual behaviour in the context of the simultaneous application of different ideas about sacred landscape. I aim to demonstrate the functional pattern behind handling seemingly ambivalent characteristics of cosmological models in the tangible ritual performance of the Khanty, an indigenous people inhabiting the taiga and forest taiga zone of Western Siberia. I explore three cases in which the concept of sacred topography is applied among the Khanty by exploring two public ceremonies of reindeer sacrifice and one episode of a post-funeral rite. It appeared that the spatial conceptualisation is different in different rituals. During sacrificial ceremonies, the Khanty position the Upper World in the southern direction, while in the case of death rituals, the Upper World is projected towards upstream of a river, even if it remains in the north. Studying different spatial orientations during rituals provides a methodological key for approaching other concepts of vernacular belief among Siberian indigenous communities.
On the basis of ethnographic fieldwork, conducted between 2007 and 2013, the authors analyse the communities of male artisans that have had the most significant impact on the development of contemporary Estonian handicraft. A wide range of artisans were surveyed in the course of this research, from professionals who earn a living from handicraft to amateurs, small enterprises and handicraft instructors. The authors concentrate on the motifs and background of different categories of handicraft agent. Details of handicraft practice such as mastering specific items, local peculiarities and materials used will be also explored. The analysis is predominantly based on the artisans’ views on proper ways of making handicraft items, their marketing strategies and the needs of developing their skills. The study* demonstrates that artisanal initiatives support the material reproduction of cultural locations through constant renewal of heritage ideology and practice.
The article reveals the concept of digital entrepreneurship and its framework for education of immigrants and asylum seekers in Baltic Sea countries. The research has been carried out in the boundaries of the Nordplus Adult project with participation of partner organisations from Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Sweden. As stated in the article, digital entrepreneurship is supposed to be one of the opportunities in promoting successful integration of immigrants and asylum seekers into labour market. Therefore, by supporting the development of entrepreneurship as an integral part of adult education, and modelling new methods of combining new digital technologies and entrepreneurship education it is intended to help both immigrants and asylum seekers to acquire relevant competence for successful integration into labour markets. The article’s purpose is to disclose the relevance of digital entrepreneurship as a new competence of immigrants and asylum seekers with respect to their needs for successful integration into the socio-economic situation of a host country. The method of data collection was interview with experts. The experts found the efficiency of the framework important to some degree. In the experts’ opinion, educational goals based on the framework are achievable. However, diversity of the target group could be a risky factor.