The historical, economic and legal conditions of the Polish energy supply system differ from other European countries. The share of renewable energy sources in the overall energy balance is still limited. The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether it is possible to meet the energy needs of the basic unit of the territorial organization in Poland, i.e. a commune, exclusively from renewable sources. The main emphasis was put on the methods of estimating the demand of the inhabitants of a commune for energy and the possibility of producing it in an alternative way. The presented considerations could be used as a support for decision makers on the regional and local level in Poland and other European countries, who face the same challenges in energy supply.
Participatory budgeting has become a vital tool in making urban spatial planning more community oriented. Examination of how participatory budgeting has evolved is a pertinent subject in theoretical research and in practical applications. Projects proposed by local communities improve the quality of life in cities and enhance benefits offered by public spaces. The main goal of the paper is to present an overview and examine projects that transform public space, which have been implemented in selected Polish cities, namely in Katowice, Łódź, and Poznań within the framework of participatory budgeting exercise.
Our research has demonstrated that in many cases participatory budgeting has acted as a catalyst of a variety of local bottom-up initiatives addressing public space in researched cities. It is thanks to the engaged and creative people at the local level that new functions which improve the quality of life are developed in cities.