The article intends to analyze the closely correlated concepts of trademark exhaustion and parallel imports. The growing importance of these concepts in the current world, especially in the European Union, makes it an interesting research topic, even though the concepts are complicated due to their nature and different actors involved. The authors use comparative approach, concentrating on two world leaders in the field, in order to discover what is the approach of the EU as well as the approach of the USA to the concepts of trademark exhaustion and parallel imports, what are the benefits and weaknesses of these approaches, and analyze why these markets have arrived at certain conclusions.
The article deals with the problematic of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) as the crucial political question related with the European Integration. The authors describes and analysis the role of the CAP within the EU policies, its development form the very beginning of the integration its internal structure, rules of organisation, working system and financial aspects. The close concern is given to the question of the long-term sustainability of CAP and the reform for the next financial period (2014-2020). Th e special part is devoted to the influence of the CAP on the enlargement process with the special impetus to the association of Georgia to the EU.
Given Winston Churchill’s influence and achievement as a writer, historian, adventurer, soldier, artist, and politician, his participation in the European integration process is crucial to understanding the entire scope of the project in its origins. Churchill was a fundamental voice promoting the Franco-British Union, a promoter of the European Communities, and an active participant of the Congress of Europe, embryo of the Council of Europe. This article analyzes Churchill’s view of European integration through his political speeches, in particular those delivered in Zurich and in The Hague, his ideas about the League of Nations and the United Nations, his understanding of the British Empire, and the special relations between the UK and the USA. His participation in the process of uniting Europe in its early stages provides us with essential information about the original plans for the creation of a united Europe and understanding the traditional British approach to the EU, including the current position of the conservative government led by Cameron.
In this paper, the authors analyse the ambiguous political decision to ban the major Russian web resources from access to the Ukrainian market, in spite of heavy criticisms from local and foreign experts. While the supporters of the new internet policy claimed the new strategy to be coherent with cybersecurity priorities of the country, the opponents pointed out a set of legal and political limitations. Drawing on the setting and results of taking a new approach to information policy, we describe the fragility of Euromaidan democratic heritage and drawbacks of the current political regime. The logical method of legal interpretation has been applied to analyse the controversies of the current legislation on Russian internet resources restriction. The article concludes that Ukrainian post-Euromaidan governance model needs to consolidate the efforts in order to prove the commitment to freedom of speech as a core European value and replace spontaneous actions with an evidence-based approach to political decision-making.
The business model of many law firms, as legal professions on the whole, will be facing a considerable paradigm change since the work provided by law firms in the form of billable hours, in fact, largely consists of services which do not require superior legal education but involve mere data procession. It is only a question of time that the consequence – to have all outsourceable services be performed by means of legal technology – will become public knowledge in the branch, as the costs saved by the usage of legal technology are considerable. Legal technology, or Legal Tech, in this context represents a broad range of solutions that affect both lawyers and clients on various levels. However, the discourse on automatisation of law has been scant and sporadic. This paper aims to shed some light on the current operating technical solutions for innovation with the primary aim of explicating the different aims and levels of development of different legal technologies.
This study analyses China’s One Belt, One Road (OBOR) initiative for the Baltic and South Caucasus countries. Trade, Foreign Direct Investments and transit potential are taken as main factors for the cooperation. A clash of China and the West in pursuing economic leadership is taken into account. The study suggests a new, alternative route for the OBOR initiative through the Caucasus, which has all the needed infrastructure and readiness for being started. Moreover, Georgia is not new to the EU preferences, it has experience of GSP+ and now the unique achievement of free trade regimes with the EU and China is also taken as an alternative route and an advantage for the Caucasus and the Baltic States.
This article is an econometric study of patent development, education policy and research and development (R&D) expenditure policy, the aim of which is to investigate the key similarities and differences when it comes to the issue of competitiveness between Estonia and Finland, particularly in the utilisation of foreign patents, as well as ranking them on the international arena. The authors of the article intend to study how it is possible to increase the technological competitiveness of small European Union Member States and the special effect of investments in research and development (R&D) and education on the competitiveness ranking of Estonia and Finland. The authors attempt to explore how Estonia can advance by learning from the model of innovative growth adopted by Finland.