The aim of the present study aims to establish the impact of different restoration techniques (soil and vegetation works) of five pioneer species of the Doui Thabet forest (Mounts of Saida, West of Algeria): Pinus halepensis, Pistacia lentiscus., Tetraclinis articulata, Juniperus oxycedru,. and Stipa capensis (= S. tenacissima L.) between 2018 and 2020. An experimental field device covering an area of 1 ha has been installed in the Doui Thabet forest in a Pinus halepensis massive more than 80 years old. The following work was carried out: mechanical grinding of the vegetation (chopping), turning (scarification of soil) to a depth of 10 cm, tillage (Deep ploughing) to a depth of 20 cm, controlled burning of branches, clearing of Stipa capensis, seedlings planted in different seasons for certain species (Stipa capensis = S. tenacissima L.), monitoring of stump rejections and natural sowing. The sowing result varies according to the species and restoration techniques, it is high for Pinus halepensis and Stipa capensis. It is low for Tetraclinis articulata and Juniperus oxycedrus and none for Pistacia lentiscus while for Stipa capensis it is quite high when planted in autumn compared to spring. Turning and burning have proven to be the most abundant treatments for regeneration and growth. Grinding has medium seedling density and growth, while deep tillage and natural sowing showed low seedling density and growth.
The forest of Doui Thabet is one of the forests of the Mounts of Saida (Western Algeria) which is experiencing a dynamic regressive. Located in the semi-arid bioclimatic stage, it is located at the edge of two phytogeographic sub-sectors: atlas Tellien Oranais (O3) and high plateau subsector (H1). Among the factors that threaten to curb this fragile and weakened ecosystem, in addition to drought and climate aridity and which has become a structural ecological phenomenon; the overgrazing is also a major limiting factor. This current study provides a qualitative and quantitative assessment of anthropogenic pressure exerted in this area zone. The methodology adopted in this study is that of Le Houerou (1969) and Montoya (1983), which it is based on the calculation of the annual needs of the herd in forage units, the estimate of the feed potential of production, the coefficient of overgrazing and in addition to the anthropogenic pressure index. The result of the forage balance in the forest rangelands of the studied area has a forage deficit (overload) of (96.64%) (a sylvopastoral imbalance), in addition to that, the coefficient of overgrazing is (92.3%) and the anthropogenic pressure index is very high (28). The conservation and the restoration of this area is a major concern in the face of global changes, taking into account their mode of reproduction and their dynamics, for the development of restoration strategies and more effective ways of protection.