Acromegaly is an unusual disorder caused by abnormal oversecretion of growth hormone by pituitary adenomas. Transsphenoidal surgery is frequently the first management option. The objective of this article is to establish the effectiveness of a transnasal transsphenoidal approach in the treatment of GH-producing adenomas, and to identify risk factors for disease persistence.
We conducted a retrospective review of 81 patients treated for acromegaly with transsphenoidal microsurgery between 2006 and 2010.
Macroadenomas accounted for 66.7% of the cases, contrast-enhanced MRI revealing cavernous sinus invasion in 28.4% of the patients (23 subjects). Cure was achieved in 72.8% (59 of 82). All microadenomas (27 cases) were managed effectively with surgery whereas cure rates stood at 66.7% for macroadenomas. Monovariate analysis showed that disease persistence was statistically associated with three variables. Odds ratio for remission stood at 1.68 for microadenomas and 0.033 for cavernous sinus invasion (p<0.001). Preoperative GH values were statistically associated with cure during follow up (p<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only cavernous sinus invasion continued to be significantly associated with disease persistence (OR 3.52, p<0.05).
The transnasal approach proves effective in the treatment and cure of acromegaly. Cavernous sinus invasion is a major predictor of disease persistence.