Martin Vaváček, Anton Lednický and Kristína Hajduová
The authors focused on biomechanical analysis of the exercising shapes of the compulsory exercises in the equestrian vaulting. It is a sport sector in which similar observations have not been carried out. The use of 3D analysis brought the opportunity to observe the exercising shapes on a simulator and in real conditions on a horse. By the selected 3D approach they focused on three crucial phases of the swing back. This approach helped detect possible mistakes which the coach could not register from one position. The experimental set consisted of highly accomplished riders. The results confirmed that the higher the accomplishment level of a sportsman the fewer are the differences between the performances of an exercising shape. From the above mentioned we could assume that by including exercises on a barrel simulator into training units, we could influence the technique of performance of the individual exercising shapes on a horse in movement.
Ladislava Doležajová, Anton Lednický and Martin Vaváček
The authors have evaluated the combined track-and-field events performed by the female students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport of Comenius University in Bratislava (CU FPES) in the years 2013 – 2017. The combined track-and-field events are an obligatory part of the final Athletics examination in the teacher-training study program. The selected disciplines reflect the first day of the men’s decathlon with the exception of the last one, which is replaced by 800 m. The number of points in the combined event enters into the overall assessment of the subject Didactics of Athletics II together with an oral examination. The authors analysed not only the total number of points in the pentathlon but also in the individual disciplines and their percentage share in the final result. They have discovered that the shot put and high jump are among the most stable disciplines. The greatest variance of the percentage share in the overall number of points was observed in the 100 m dash, 800 m and in the long jump. The performance of a high number of students (almost two-thirds) came below the average performance in the particular year as expressed in points.
Ladislava Doležajová, Tatiana Gallová and Anton Lednický
Basketball is a complex team sport, which combines cyclic and acyclic motion structures consisting mainly of fast and dynamic moves with or without a ball. The puberty is characterized by considerable variability that may occur earlier (developmental acceleration, early maturing) or later (developmental retardation, late maturing): an example can be a 12-year-old girl whom biological age could range from 9.5 to 14.5 years. For this study we selected 6 girls-players from the whole team. Two players were according to the norms from the zone of developmental retardation (BioRet), two players whose decimal and biological age i.e. bone age was identical (DC = BV), and the other two were in the biological acceleration zone (BioAkc.). All players were 13-years old and competed in the U14 category. We have confirmed that there are great differences in biological age in a group of 13-years old girls – in our research it has shown almost four years difference. We did not confirm the author's conclusions that biologically accelerated individuals achieved better results than the retarded ones in the speed and strength tests.
Tatiana Gallová, Ladislava Doležajová, Anton Lednický, Kestutis Matulaitis and Mitja Bračič
The authors compared selected somatic data and test results in 20 m sprint and countermovement jump (CJM) of 14-year-old Lithuanian players from Sabonis Center (LT, n=143; body height: 173.7 ± 8.99 cm; body mass: 59.30 ± 11.40 kg), and Slovenian (SLO, n=84; body height: 172.8 ± 9.96 cm; body mass: 60.10 ± 12.49 kg) and Slovak national team players (SVK, n=42, body height: 177.5 ± 9.07 cm; body mass: 63.32 ± 11.36 kg). The SVK players were divided into the narrow pick (A-team, n=16) and broader roster (B-team, n=26). Within the SVK groups, significant differences between the A-team and B-team have been found in terms of body height (p<0.05) and body mass measurements (p<0.01), and in the test 20 m sprint (p<0.05). In CMJ results, the differences of the A-team and B-team have not been statistically significant. In the international comparison SVK players were taller than SLO and LT players (p <0.05). In the test 20 m sprint SVK players have achieved significantly better results (LT p <0.05, SLO p <0.01). On the contrary, in CMJ test the results (height of the jump) of SVK players were significantly worse than SLO and LT players (p<0.01).