This paper examines the agency model of dividends where the importance of dividends depends on the level of investor protection. The importance of dividends is presented by the dividend smoothing concept, while the level of investor protection is determined by the legal origin. Within this, the sensitivity of dividends to earnings changes was analyzed to examine the universality of the dividend smoothing phenomenon. Subsequently, the difference in proportions of dividend smoothing firms within the common law and civil law countries was tested to determine which of these two systems attributes more importance to dividends. Finally, the application of Lintner’s model was examined in transition countries as well as in United States. Research results show that dividend smoothing is a globally widespread phenomenon, but the likelihood to reduce or cut dividends is greater in civil law countries. Also, the largest percentage of dividend smoothing firms was recorded in common law countries.
This paper examines the characteristics of dividend paying firms in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The research is conducted on a sample of 35 largest public firms during the period of five years, from 2013 to 2017, using multiple linear regression and logistic regression. The aim of the research is to explore the internal determinants of dividend payouts and to find whether there are any deviations from empirical experiences in the world. The research results show that larger and more profitable firms are more likely to pay dividends, while more indebted and closely held firms are less likely to pay dividends. The negative relation found between the dividend decision and investment opportunities is not statistically significant. The research results also show that the size is positively associated with higher payout ratios, while the payout ratios decrease with greater use of financial leverage. Profitability, investment opportunities and ownership concentration do not affect the level of dividend distribution.