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Open access

Anna Wróblewska and Ernest Stawiarz

Abstract

Eighteen samples of honeys which were harvested over several beekeeping seasons from apiaries located in the area of the “Kózki” Nature Reserve (central-eastern Poland) were the subject of the present study. The “Kózki” Nature Reserve is included in the European Ecological Network Natura 2000 program. A microscopic analysis of the pollen sediment in the honeys showed the presence of 61 pollen types from 32 botanical families in the investigated material. There were represented by nectariferous (72.1%) and nonnectariferous plants (27.9%) and both entomophilous and anemophilous ones. The total number of pollen taxa in individual samples ranged from 13 to 37. The main sources of nectar from trees and shrubs were: Frangula alnus, Prunus, Robinia pseudacacia, Rubus, Salix, Tilia. The main sources of nectar from herbaceous plants were: Anthriscus, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Centaurea cyanus, Taraxacum, and Trifolium repens. Four unifloral honeys (three fruit tree honeys and one lime honey) and fourteen multifloral honeys, with a significant percentage of pollen from several nectariferous plant taxa, were distinguished in the studied material.

Open access

Agnieszka Wróblewska, Anna Fajdek and Eugeniusz Milchert

Epoxidation of crotyl alcohol in the presence of titanium silicalite Ti-MWW catalyst — the new and friendly method of 2,3-epoxybutane-1-ol synthesis

Epoxidation of crotyl alcohol (CA) with 30 wt% hydrogen peroxide over Ti-MWW catalyst has been studied with methanol as a solvent and at autogenic pressure. The influence of temperature in the range of 20-120°C, the molar ratio of CA/H2O2 1:1-5:1, methanol concentration 5-90 wt%, Ti-MWW catalyst concentration 0.0-5.0 wt% and the reaction time 5-300 min have been studied. The main product of CA epoxidation is 2,3-epoxybutane-1-ol (2,3EB1O), a compound with many applications.

Open access

Agnieszka Wróblewska, Anna Fajdek and Eugeniusz Milchert

Synthesis and characteristics of titanium silicalite TS-1, Ti-Beta and Ti-MWW catalysts

The synthesis methods of the following titanium-silicalite catalysts: TS-1, Ti-Beta and Ti-MWW were presented. The results of the analyses of the catalysts by XRD, SEM and IR, UV-vis methods were also shown. A brief description of the catalytic performances of these catalysts in the oxidation process of olefins, alkenes, alcohols and aromatic compounds was presented.

Open access

Agnieszka Wróblewska, Anna Fajdek, Eugeniusz Milchert and Barbara Grzmil

The Ti-MWW catalyst - its characteristic and catalytic properties in the epoxidation of allyl alcohol by hydrogen peroxide

Ti-MWW, one of the latest titanium-silicalite catalysts, has been prepared by direct hydrothermal synthesis using hexamethyleneimine as a structure-directing agent. The characteristic of the catalyst was performed by means of the following methods: XRD, SEM, IR, UV-vis and X'Ray microanalysis. The catalytic properties of Ti-MWW have been compared with those of the conventional titanium-silicalites TS-1 and TS-2 in the epoxidation of allyl alcohol with hydrogen peroxide. The process has been described by the following main functions: the selectivity of the transformation to glycidol in relation to allyl alcohol consumed, the conversions of the substrates (allyl alcohol and hydrogen peroxide) and the selectivity of the transformation to organic compounds in relation to hydrogen peroxide consumed.

Open access

Ernest Stawiarz and Anna Wróblewska

Abstract

A study on the flowering biology and pollen production of the common laburnum (Laburnum anagyroides Med.) was conducted under the conditions of Lublin during the period 2004 - 2006. The flowering of this species began in the second 10-day period of May and lasted for 2.5 - 4 weeks. The flowers of common laburnum are borne in showy golden-yellow pendulous racemes. They develop successively, starting from the base and moving to the tip of an inflorescence. During the growing season, one shrub produces 800 to 3200 racemes, with 14 to 35 flowers in a single raceme. On average, the flowering duration for a raceme was 12.8 days and 8.7 days for a single flower. Throughout the study years, the shrubs proved to be most attractive in the third 10-day period of May when they reached full bloom.

The average weight of pollen produced was 6.08 mg per 10 flowers of Laburnum anagyroides, 14.02 mg per raceme, and 26.0 g per shrub. Pollen grains reached average dimensions of 24.01 μm × 24.26 μm.

Open access

Regina Dębicz, Anna Pawlikowska, Katarzyna Wróblewska and Przemysław Bąbelewski

Abstract

Silicon supplementation may lead to positive changes in plant quality, including their appearance. The two-factorial experiment with three ornamental plant taxa Gazania rigens ‘Kiss Yellow’, Salvia farinacea ‘Fairy Queen’ and Verbena ‘Obsession Lilac’ was conducted in the years 2012-2013. The first factor was foliar application of Si in form of ortho-silicic acid stabilized with choline (YaraVita Actisil) at the concentrations of 60, 120 and 180 mg·dm-3, while the second was soil application of multinutrient fertilizer (Insol U) at the concentrations of 0.25% and 0.50%. Biometric measurements of plants were carried out at the beginning of flowering. The laboratory analyses included the determination of the content of P, K, Ca, Mg and Si as well as chlorophyll content in the leaves. Silicon had a beneficial influence on a majority of the analysed morphological features. Plants reacted best to high silicon doses (120 and 180 mg·dm-3). Particularly beneficial effects were noted with respect to improved flowering of all analysed plant taxa and to the vegetative development of Salvia and Gazania. Insol U supplementation noticeably improved the flowering of Verbena.

Open access

Anna Wróblewska, Ernest Stawiarz and Marzena Masierowska

Abstract

Offering more floral resources for urban bees can be achieved by growing ornamental bee plants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate selected Asteraceae (Calendula officinalis ‘Persimmon Beauty’ and ‘Santana’, Centaurea macrocephala, Cosmos sulphureus, Dahlia pinnata, Tagetes patula, Tithonia rotundifolia, and Zinnia elegans) as pollen sources for pollinators. Under urban conditions in Lublin, SE Poland, the investigated plants flowered from late June to the end of October. The mass of pollen produced in florets and capitula was found to be species-related. The highest pollen amounts per 10 florets (10.1 mg) as well as per capitulum (249.7 mg) were found for C. macrocephala. The mass of pollen yielded by a single plant depended on both the pollen mass delivered per disk florets and the proportion of disk florets in capitulum, and the flowering abundance of the plants. A single plant of D. pinnata and a single plant of T. rotundifolia each produced the largest pollen mass. Mean pollen yield per 1m2 of a plot ranged from 6.2 g (Z. elegans) to 60.7 g (D. pinnata). Pollen grains are tricolporate, with echinate exine, medium or small in size. They can be categorised as oblatespherical, spherical, and prolatespherical. The principal visitors to C. macrocephala, C. sulphureus, and C. officinalis were honey bees, whereas bumble bees dominated on T. rotundifolia and D. pinnata. A magnet plant for butterflies was Z. elegans. Among the investigated species, D. pinnata, C. macrocephala, and T. rotundifolia were found to be the most valuable sources of pollen flow for managed and wild bees.

Open access

Tadeusz Liziński, Anna Wróblewska and Krystyna Rauba

Abstract

Traditional methods of economic evaluation of projects in the field of environmental protection do not reflect the full value of these projects. In particular, it doesn’t take into account non-market effects that have an impact on the level of social welfare. The issue of valuation of natural resources and related services is also related to this problem. The evaluations and valuations of areas generally ignored the value of natural resources or take into account only the part which has the market value.

The article presents the results of study the economy of non-market goods using contingent valuation method. The first part of the results concerns the willingness to pay for improvement of safety sense from flood risk. The second part concerns willingness to pay for the use of municipal sewage treatment plants. The population living of the area of the Żuławy of Vistula delta valued their improvement of safety sense from flood risk of at more than twice the value of the compared to current expenditures incurred flood protection. The vast majority of respondents considered it reasonable protection of polder areas. Indicating simultaneously that in the reduction of flood risk allows possible resettlement and restoration polder parts. The majority of residents (98%) agreed to the construction of wastewater treatment plants and were willing to pay for its construction and operation. The majority of respondents (especially those in middle age and older) found that the collective sewage development would contribute to improving the environment quality and thus the residents living standard. However, not all were willing to pay for the use of collective sewage collection and treatment. 18% of respondents did not want to pay an amount greater than the current charges for the sewage removal and treatment. In addition, the residents of the municipality cannot afford to pay, or believe that water supply and sanitation services should be free.

Open access

Marek Krawczyk, Michał Grąt, Krzysztof Barski, Joanna Ligocka, Arkadiusz Antczak, Oskar Kornasiewicz, Michał Skalski, Waldemar Patkowski, Paweł Nyckowski, Krzysztof Zieniewicz, Ireneusz Grzelak, Jacek Pawlak, Abdulsalam Alsharabi, Tadeusz Wróblewski, Rafał Paluszkiewicz, Bogusław Najnigier, Krzysztof Dudek, Piotr Remiszewski, Piotr Smoter, Mariusz Grodzicki, Michał Korba, Marcin Kotulski, Bartosz Cieślak, Piotr Kalinowski, Piotr Gierej, Mariusz Frączek, Łukasz Rdzanek, Rafał Stankiewicz, Konrad Kobryń, Łukasz Nazarewski, Dorota Leonowicz, Magdalena Urban-Lechowicz, Anna Skwarek, Dorota Giercuszkiewicz, Agata Paczkowska, Jolanta Piwowarska, Remigiusz Gelo, Paweł Andruszkiewicz, Anna Brudkowska, Renata Andrzejewska, Grzegorz Niewiński, Beata Kilińska, Aleksandra Zarzycka, Robert Nowak, Cezary Kosiński, Teresa Korta, Urszula Ołdakowska-Jedynak, Joanna Sańko-Resmer, Bartosz Foroncewicz, Jacek Ziółkowski, Krzysztof Mucha, Grzegorz Senatorski, Leszek Pączek, Andrzej Habior, Robert Lechowicz, Sławomir Polański, Elżbieta Leowska, Ryszard Pacho, Małgorzata Andrzejewska, Olgierd Rowiński, Sławomir Kozieł, Jerzy Żurakowski, Bogna Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska, Barbara Górnicka, Piotr Hevelke, Bogdan Michałowicz, Andrzej Karwowski and Jerzy Szczerbań

1000 Liver Transplantations at the Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw - Analysis of Indications and Results

The aim of the study was to analyze indications and results of the first one thousand liver transplantations at Chair and Clinic of General, Transplantation and Liver Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw.

Material and methods. Data from 1000 transplantations (944 patients) performed at Chair and Clinic of General, Transplantation and Liver Surgery between 1994 and 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. These included 943 first transplantations and 55 retransplantations and 2 re-retransplantations. Frequency of particular indications for first transplantation and retransplantations was established. Perioperative mortality was defined as death within 30 days after the transplantation. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate 5-year patient and graft survival.

Results. The most common indications for first transplantation included: liver failure caused by hepatitis C infection (27.8%) and hepatitis B infection (18%) and alcoholic liver disease (17.7%). Early (< 6 months) and late (> 6 months) retransplantations were dominated by hepatic artery thrombosis (54.3%) and recurrence of the underlying disease (45%). Perioperative mortality rate was 8.9% for first transplantations and 34.5% for retransplantations. Five-year patient and graft survival rate was 74.3% and 71%, respectively, after first transplantations and 54.7% and 52.9%, respectively, after retransplantations.

Conclusions. Development of liver transplantation program provided more than 1000 transplantations and excellent long-term results. Liver failure caused by hepatitis C and B infections remains the most common cause of liver transplantation and structure of other indications is consistent with European data.