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Anna Wolska


Granitic plutons (the Dolina Będkowska valley and Pilica area) were found in a few boreholes in the Małopolska Block (MB). These granitic rocks may represent apical parts (apophyses) of a great magmatic bodies (batholiths) located in deeper level of the Ediacaran/Paleozoic basement. They are described as ‘stitching intrusions’, generated during/after collision in Carboniferous/Permian period (~300 Ma) between the Upper Silesian Block (USB) and the Małopolska Block (MB).

These rocks are fresh, unaltered granodiorites that are pale grey in colour. They have holocrystalline, medium- to coarse-grained structure and massive texture. For the first time, several mafic microgranular enclaves (MME), varying in size and colour, were found in the granodioritic host (HG). The occurrence of MME in the host granodioritic rocks is evidence of a mingling process between mafic and felsic magmas.

The MME are pale/dark grey in colour, fine-grained rocks with ‘porphyritic’ textures. They consist of large megacrysts/xenocrysts of plagioclase, quartz, alkali feldspars and the fine-grained groundmass of pseudo-doleritic textures (lath-shaped plagioclases, blade-shaped amphiboles/biotites). According to their modal/mineral composition, they represent Q-diorites and tonalites.

The MME, similar to the host granodiorites (HG), are I-type rocks, exhibit high Na2O content >3.2 wt%; normative diopside or normative corundum occurs (mainly <1%). They are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous (ASI <1.1) and have calc-alkaline, medium-K to high-K character. They generally belong to magnesian series (#Mg=0.20-0.40) and have low agpaitic index (<0.87). They are low evolved magmatic rocks. The rocks studied are enriched in LREEs (La, Ce, Sm) compared to HREEs. The Eu* negative anomaly and high Sr contents point to varying degrees of plagioclase fractionation connected to the mixing process rather than simple fractional crystallization. Both rocks studied (HG and MME) are characterized by a high content of LILEs (K, Ba, Rb) in normalized patterns and a low HFS/LIL elements ratio (Ta, Nb)/(K, Rb, La). The projection points of the rocks studied plot in different fields of various petrochemical diagrams: mainly in the arc granites that are rare in the pre-collisional granites as well as the syn-subductional to post-collisional granites fields.

For the first time, inner textures in rock-forming minerals related to mixing processes are described both in the granodioritic host (HG) and in the MME. Mantled boxy cellular plagioclase megacrysts with ‘old cores’ of labradorite composition, and amphibole aggregates with titanite and opaque minerals, represent peritectic rather than primary residual minerals. The plagioclase, quartz and alkali feldspar megacrysts/xenocrysts were mechanically transferred from the granodioritic host (HG) to MME. The presence of lath-shaped plagioclases, blade-shaped amphiboles/biotites and acicular-shaped apatites in the groundmass of the MME is evidence of undercooling of hot mafic blobs in a relatively cold granodioritic magma chamber. The MME were hybridized by leucocratic melt squeezed from the granodioritic magma in a later stage of the mixing process (quartz and alkali crystals in the interstices in the MME groundmass). In the granodiorites (HG), the spike and spongy cellular zones as well as biotite/amphibole zones in plagioclase megacrysts are connected to the mixing process.

Both of the rocks studied are characterized by different amounts of major elements (SiO2, Na2O and K2O), trace elements (Ni, Cr, V, Ti and P), #Mg and modified alkali-lime index (MALI) that is related to their origins from different sources. On the other hand, they have similar chondrite-normalized patterns (for trace elements and REE), LILEs contents (Sr, Ba, Rb), aluminum saturation index (ASI) and isotopic signatures (high 86Sr/87Sr (0.079-0.713) and low 143Nd/144Nd (0.512) values but lower than in continental crust), which are evidence of the strong hybridisation of mafic enclaves by the granodioritic host magma. The parental rocks of both rocks studied have a similar mafic signature but were generated in different sources: the host granodiorites (HG) magma in lower continental crust rocks, and the MME magma in enriched upper mantle. The MME crystallized from strongly hybridized magma of intermediate compositions (Q-diorite, tonalite) rather than from primary mafic magma. The host granodiorites (HG) originated from completely homogenized crustal granodioritic magma which inherited its geochemical signature from ancient arc-rocks in a subduction-related setting

Open access

Cezary Sempruch, Bogumił Leszczyński, Grzegorz Chrzanowski, Anna Filipczuk, Paweł Czerniewicz and Katarzyna Wolska

Activity of Aspartate Aminotransferase and Alanine Aminotransferase Within Winter Triticale Seedlings Infested by Grain Aphid (Sitobion Avenae F.)

Amino acid level is well known indicator of plant resistance to aphids. Our earlier studies showed that grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) infestation caused changes in the activity of the enzymes connected with amino acid biosynthesis and the transformation to defensive secondary metabolites within triticale tissues. However, there are not data on the significance of aminotransferases in these processes. The aim of our study was the quantification of changes in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) and alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) in winter triticale seedlings caused by the feeding of the grain aphid. The study results showed that aphid feeding caused an increase in AlaAT activity and a decrease in AspAT activity within tissues of the triticale. The induced mechanisms of the triticale resistance to the grain aphid are discussed.

Open access

Krzysztof Bąk, Marta Bąk, Zbigniew Górny and Anna Wolska


Hemipelagic green clayey shales and thin muddy turbidites accumulated in a deep sea environment below the CCD in the Skole Basin, a part of the Outer Carpathian realm, during the Middle Cenomanian. The hemipelagites contain numerous radiolarians, associated with deep-water agglutinated foraminifera. These sediments accumulated under mesotrophic conditions with limited oxygen concentration. Short-term periodic anoxia also occurred during that time. Muddy turbidity currents caused deposition of siliciclastic and biogenic material, including calcareous foramini-fers and numerous sponge spicules. The preservation and diversity of the spicules suggests that they originate from disarticulation of moderately diversified sponge assemblages, which lived predominantly in the neritic-bathyal zone. Analyses of radiolarian ecological groups and pellets reflect the water column properties during the sedimentation of green shales. At that time, surface and also intermediate waters were oxygenated enough and sufficiently rich in nutri-ents to enable plankton production. Numerous, uncompacted pellets with nearly pristine radiolarian skeletons inside show that pelletization was the main factor of radiolarian flux into the deep basin floor. Partly dissolved skeletons indicate that waters in the Skole Basin were undersaturated in relation to silica content. Oxygen content might have been depleted in the deeper part of the water column causing periodic anoxic conditions which prevent rapid bacterial degra-dation of the pellets during their fall to the sea floor.