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  • Author: Anna Witek x
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Cardio-pulmonary fitness and anthropometric features in men aged 50+ trained in long-distance running and those not trained


Study aim: the aim of study was assessment somatic features and selected cardio-ventilatory indices in men above 50 years old with different physical activity levels.

Materials and methods: the study included 55 men on average aged 54.5 ± 4.32, classified to the trained group (T), n = 33, and not trained group (NT), n = 22. Total physical activity was assessed using the SDPAR Questionnaire. Measurements: anthropometric indices, ventilatory indices and VO2 peak, hemodynamic indices and fatigue using Borg scale during exercise maximal test.

Results: daily energy expenditures for sport and recreation differ significantly between T and NT groups, 6.82 METs vs. 0.2 METs, respectively (p < 0.001). Men in T and NT groups significantly differ in somatic features, and cardio-pulmonary indices including: time of physical tests effort (s) 1103 ± 193 vs. 681 ± 328; max speed (km/h) 14 ± 1.5 vs. 10 ± 1.4, VE peak 135.9 ± 21.17 l/min vs. 112.9 ± 21.49 l/min; VO2 peak 61.8 ± 8.83 ml/kg/min vs. 41.9 ± 8.55 ml/kg/min; HR rest (beat/min) 69 ± 16.95 vs. 83 ± 14.48; HR peak (beat/min) 171 ± 1.23 vs. 163 ± 15.28; SV peak (ml) 162 ± 24.23 vs. 135 ± 33.22; CO peak 27.4 ± 4,3 vs. 21.6 ± 5.17.

Conclusions: men aged 50+ who practice running training differ favourably and significantly from men not trained in anthropometric as well as cardio-ventilatory indices. Significant correlations were found between DEE and FAT(%), VO2 peak (ml/kg/min), SV peak (ml) and COpeak (l/min) as well between CO peak and VO2peak was record linear relationship (r = 0.56).

Open access
Insect Pests Occurring on the Different Iris L. (Iridaceae) Taxa


The experiment was carried out in years 2012–2013 in the Collection of Ornamental Plants of the Agricultural University in Cracow. Six Iris taxa – Iris graminea L. and hybrids from Sibiriceae section: I. ‘Wisley White’, ‘Wiltrude Gissel’, ‘Violet Meer’, ‘White Swirl’, I. ‘Towanda Redflare’ × I. sibirica hybrid (RF × I SK) were observed. Each taxon was represented by five clumps. In weekly intervals from May to August, the insects: Mononychus punctumalbum (Hbst.), Phorbia servadei (Seguy), Oxythyrea funesta (Poda.) and Aphthona nonstriata (Goeze) were collected from the selected plants. The differences in infestation of different Iris taxa by pests were noted. The most infested by pests was the hybrid from Sibiriceae section I. ‘Wiltrud Gissel’ whereas hardly attacked species was Iris graminea. M. punctumalbum and P. servadei were the most frequently occurring insects. The adults of M. punctumalbum were observed in the greatest numbers on ‘Wiltrud Gissel’, ‘Violet Meer’ and RF × I SK hybrid. P. servadei larvae were most abundant in the buds of ‘Wiltrud Gissel’ and ‘Violet Meer’ O. funesta and A. nonstriata occurred in a small number whereas a common pest – A. newtoni – was not found.

Open access
Country of origin from a management perspective of emerging market companies



The purpose of this paper is to identify the understanding and strategic importance of the country of origin (COO) and its dimensions from the perspective of the emerging market firms.


A qualitative approach was applied using in-depth interviews with 11 informants from owners of emerging market companies of household appliances brands.

Key findings

COO is perceived by managers of emerging markets’ firms as a multidimensional construct. In addition to the COO dimensions presented in the literature, informants indicate the following: country of technology/innovation origin, country of technical culture, country of service network localization, country of organizational culture origin (COOCO), and country of brand launching (COBL). Country of manufacturing (COM)/assembly/parts is perceived as a strategic imperative, first of all, from the sourcing strategy perspective, and it is less important from the marketing perspective than the country of brand origin (COBO).


This study contributes to existing literature by developing a deeper understanding of the COO dimensions from a perspective of emerging market companies.

Open access
Effects of Short-Term Plyometric Training on Physical Performance in Male Handball Players


The aim of this study was to compare the effects of plyometric and jump training on physical performance in young male handball players. Twenty-six young male handball players were divided into two sub-groups to perform a five-week pre-season training programme supplemented with two ground-reactive protocols with an equal number of jumping exercises referred as to ground contacts: plyometric training (PLY; n = 14) and standard jump training (CON; n = 12). Before and after training, repeated sprint ability (RSA), jumping ability (JA), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and aerobic power at the anaerobic threshold (PAT) were measured. A two-factor analysis revealed significant time effects with improvements in fat mass (p = 0.012), maximal power during the incremental cycling test (p = 0.001) and PAT (p < 0.001), power decline (PDEC) and maximal power (Pmax) in the 5th repetition (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The training-induced changes in absolute and relative peak power in the RSA test and absolute VO2max approached significance (p = 0.06, p = 0.053 and p = 0.06). No intervention time × exercise protocol effects were observed for any indices of JA, RSA and aerobic capacity. A five-week pre-season conditioning programme supplemented with only 15 sessions of plyometric exercise did not induce any additional benefits, compared to a matched format of standard jump training, in terms of improving jumping performance and maximal power in the RSA test. Aerobic capacity and the fatigue index in RSA were maintained under these two training conditions.

Open access