The strength of leg bones is not only genetically determined but it also depends on the gender, age, health condition and nutrition of slaughter birds. Calcium ions deficit in bones results in the deterioration of skeleton structure and reduction of bone strength. The presented work compiles the results of studies concerning the effect of feed additives on the level of calcium in the bones of broiler chickens, published during the past 10 years. From the analysis of available literature it follows that some additives had a positive effect on the accumulation of calcium (e.g. vitamin D, probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics), some were not very explicit (e.g. ascorbic acid and phytase), while others did not have a significant effect on the accumulation of calcium in bones (e.g. herbs and chelates). It is concluded from our collected information that the use of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics offers the best advantages for poultry. These additives, apart from stimulating the accumulation of calcium in bones, also benefit animal health.
The effect of Cu in the form of glycinate chelate, added to chicken feed mixtures, on biomechanical, morphometric and chemical parameters of chicken femur bones was evaluated at 6 weeks of age. Three hundred one-day-old Ross 308 male chicks were divided into 6 groups each in 5 repetitions of 10 chicks. The basal feed mixtures contained: starter 6.1 mg·kg-1 Cu, grower 6.21 mg·kg-1 Cu, finisher 5.91 mg·kg-1 Cu. In the experiment 8, 4 or 2 mg·kg-1 of copper were added to the premix (containing no Cu) in the form of copper sulfate (S-Cu) or as copper glycinate chelate (Gly-Cu). The highest cortical index and maximum elastic strength towards bone weight were observed when S-Cu was added to the mixture at 25% of the requirement. Higher values of the maximum elastic strength were recorded in groups receiving 100% and 50% Gly-Cu compared to the group fed with 100% and 25% S-Cu. In chickens receiving Gly-Cu significantly higher Ix values were recorded in comparison with the group receiving 50% S-Cu. As an alternative to iron sulfate Ross 308 broiler chickens can be fed with Fe in the form of copper glycinate chelate. The use of chelate in the amount limited to 10 or 20 mg·kg-1 did not result in worse physicochemical, strength and morphometric parameters of chicken femurs compared to the recommended dose (40 mg·kg-1).
Administration of the amino acid copper (Cu) complex ensures higher Cu bioavailability through enhanced absorption from intestine and decreases the dietary Cu level, compared to the recommended Cu dose. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Cu-low diet on the bone development in adolescent rats. Male rats at the age of 6 weeks were used in the 12-week experiment. The control diet provided the required Cu level from sulfate (S-Cu) and other diets were supplemented with Cu as a glycine complex (Cu-Gly) at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of daily requirement. After the 12-week treatment, rats from the Cu-Gly100 group were heavier, compared to the other groups. The copper and calcium plasma and bone concentrations of the rats in the groups treated with the organic form of Cu (irrespective of its dose) was similar to the control values noted in the rats administered with S-Cu. A decrease in the femur weight and length was observed in the Cu-Gly75 and Cu-Gly50 groups. Cu-Gly increased the cross section area, mean relative wall thickness, and cortical index only in the Cu-Gly75 group. A decrease in the ultimate strength, elastic stress, and ultimate stress was noted in the Cu-Gly100 and Cu-Gly75 groups. In the Cu-Gly50 group, a decrease in the ultimate stress and an increase in the maximal elastic strength and bending moment were noted. Adolescent rats treated with Cu-Gly at a Cu-deficient level exhibited a dose-dependent strongly osteoporotic cancellous bone. Lower proteoglycan content was found in groups fed the Cu-low diet. In the control rats supplemented with S-Cu, there was no evident gradient in safranin O staining. It is difficult to indicate which dose of the Cu-Gly complex among the investigated Cu-poor diet exerted a positive effect on bone metabolism. It appears that the use of this Cu-Gly complex at a significantly reduced dose than S-Cu at the recommended dose did not inhibit the development of bone and hyaline cartilage in adolescent rats.
Probiotics, prebiotics, and phytobiotics could be a possible solution as immunostimulants in monogastric animal nutrition. Beneficial effects of application thereof in animals are determined by many factors, e.g. the type of the probiotic strain, probiotic compounds, or plant species used as a supplement. A significant role is also played by the animal species, dosage, and the time and method of administration. The activity of these compounds is primarily focused on prevention of pathogen infections and, consequently, improvement of animal welfare. Probiotics compete with pathogenic bacteria by covering the intestinal epithelium mucosa, thereby interrupting pathogen colonization in the gastrointestinal tract. Supplementation with probiotics, prebiotics, and phytobiotics can also induce positive changes in the intestinal morphology, e.g. elongation of villi or deepening of intestinal crypts. In a majority of cases, they also modulate the immune response of the host. They mobilise the cellular components of the innate immune system (macrophages and heterophils), which defend the animal organism against gastrointestinal infection. Another possibility is the synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that modulate adaptive immunity or stabilization of the intestinal microbiome. The main target of immunomodulatory feed additives is reduction of local inflammation, enhancement of the function of the immune system, a substantial impact on the health status of livestock animals, and improvement of their health status and production performance.
Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are toxic metals occurring commonly in the human environment that show mutagenic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Dietary components could prevent heavy metals intoxication by reducing their accumulation in the body. The purpose of the study was to check possible protective effect of regular consumption of white, black, red, or green tea on bone metabolism during long-term exposure to Pb and Cd in adult rats. The 12 week-long exposure to Pb and Cd (50 mg Pb and 7 mg Cd/kg of the diet) in a rat model was studied. Twelve-week-old adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a negative control group (Pb and Cd exposure without tea), a control (without Pb and Cd and teas), and groups co-exposed to Pb and Cd and supplemented with green, red, black, or white tea (n=12 each group). The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. The co-exposure to Pb and Cd led to the increase of bone resorption depending on the tea treatment, which was confirmed by the mechanical testing and histomorphometrical examination of cancellous bone. Pb and Cd influenced mechanical strength, reduced the densitometric and geometric parameters and the thickness of growth plate and articular cartilages. Concluding, white tea exerted the best protective effect on bone tissue and hyaline cartilage against heavy metal action.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of caponisation on the morphometric traits and mechanical parameters of tibial and femoral bones in Greenleg Partridge cocks. The experiment involved 200 cocks. At the age of 8 weeks, 100 birds were subjected to surgical castration. At week 24, the birds were slaughtered and tibial and femoral bones were collected from 10 non-caponised cocks and 10 capons. The caponisation surgery had no effect on the weight and length of any of the long bones but resulted in reduction (P≤0.05) of the ash content in both bones and Ca in the femur. It also influenced the geometric structure of the bones, i.e. there was an increase (P≤0.05) in the second moment of inertia in the tibial bone and the cross-sectional area and mean relative wall thickness in the femoral bone of the capons. The three-point bending test revealed a negative effect of caponisation on the mechanical strength of the bone. Values characterising the highest bone material strength, i.e. yielding load (femur), maximum force moment (tibia) and yielding deformation, bending point resistance, and load-to-deformation (both bones), declined in the capons. The investigations demonstrated a negative effect of caponisation on the quality of long bones. The tibial bone seems to be slightly more sensitive to the caponisation effects than the femoral bone. It can be assumed based on the analysis of biomechanical traits that the bones of capons are more susceptible to deformations or fractures due to their modified geometry and mechanical brittleness.