In the authors’ view, the existing urban planning system is not favourable to the temporality and variability of urban wastelands, which complement traditional urban greenery through a range of functions such as; gardens, meeting spaces, places to walk the dog etc. Consequently, the aim of the paper is to investigate functions and possible scenarios for the development of urban wastelands in Poland. The methods used in the research include a comparative assessment of wasteland case studies from Warsaw and Tarnów and a comparison of possible development scenarios based on case studies from different cities across Europe. Wastelands were researched to establish their location, their functions, the distance from inhabited areas and the types of other green areas located within a 5 min. isochrone from the surrounding housing area. Case studies of development scenarios were researched to establish their changing functions, the continuity of design and the algorithm of creation. The authors conducted qualitative interviews, mapping, inventories of territorial marks (makeshift benches or other constructions made by users showing the way they ‘own’ the area), investigation of local development plans and literature reviews to gather the data used. The collation of results has led to the creation of a ‘wastelands toolkit’ – a tool dedicated to urban planners and decision makers.
The prohibition of antibiotic use in edible snails obligates breeders to treat bacterial infections by different means, of which a common one is a bath in Gram-positive– and partially Gram-negative–bactericidal ethacridine lactate solution. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of bathing Cornu aspersum Müller snails in a 0.1% aqueous solution of ethacridine lactate on selected physiological parameters of haemolymph.
Material and Methods
The study included 80 snails, divided into two equal groups (study and control). The study group was subjected to bathing in ethacridine lactate and the control group to bathing in tap water. Both groups were treated daily for seven days. The number of haemocytes in the haemolymph, the activity of alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases, and the concentration of urea were determined.
In the study group, after exposure to ethacridine lactate solution an increase in ALT activity, changes in the De Ritis ratio, an increase in the amount of haemocytes, and a decrease in body weight were found. No such changes were detected in the control group snails or in animals after the first bath.
Multiple applications of a 0.1% ethacridine lactate bath may adversely affect Cornu aspersum Müller snails.