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Open access

Anna Tomczyk and Magdalena Suszko

The role of phenols in the influence of herbal extracts from Salvia officinalis L. and Matricaria chamomilla L. on two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch

Extracts prepared from 2 medicinal herbs (common sage Salvia officinalis L. and German chamomile Matricaria chamomilla L.) were used in this study for biological control of spider mites. Their effect on mortality, fecundity, and development of Tetranychus urticae Koch on English ivy (Hedera helix L.) was studied under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. The extracts were prepared by soaking fresh Salvia leaves or dry Matricaria flowers in ethanol for 24 h, followed by evaporation, and finally suspension of the pellets in water. Full extracts and extracts without phenols were tested. The Salvia extracts had a higher acaricidal activity than Matricaria extracts, but the toxicity of both extracts to spider mite eggs was low. The toxic effect of full Salvia extracts on larval stages and females of T. urticae was evident. More than 50% of larvae and females were killed by this treatment in 4 days. Besides, total fecundity of survived females was evidently lower. Mortality and low fecundity after full Salvia extract application decreased the spider mite population by 76%. The toxicity of Salvia extracts after removal of phenols strongly declined, so the negative effect of the full Salvia extract on spider mites was connected with a high concentration of phenolic compounds. The toxic effect of Matricaria extracts in all tests was much lower and no evident role of phenolic compounds in its extracts was observed.

Open access

Anna Gajda, Andrzej Posyniak and Grzegorz Tomczyk

Abstract

For the purpose of quantitative determination of doxycycline (DC) residues in tissues, a sensitive liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed. The method was used to determine DC residues in chicken tissues (breast and thigh muscle, liver and kidney) after oral administration with drinking water to five-weak-old broiler chickens. The DC was administered for five consecutive days at a therapeutic dose of 10 mg/kg b.w. once a day. The tissues were collected after 6 h, 24 h, 7 d, and 8 d. The method was validated and the decision limit was established for muscle - 109.2 μg/kg, for liver - 326.1 μg/kg, and for kidney - 634.0 μg/kg. The detection limit was 2 μg/kg and the limit of quantification was 5 μg/kg. In a short period after ceasing the treatment, the detected concentrations of DC were much higher than the established maximum residue limit values. The highest residue concentrations of DC were observed in the kidney, followed by the liver and muscle. The lowest concentration of DC was determined in tight muscle.

Open access

Małgorzata Gbylik-Sikorska, Andrzej Posyniak, Tomasz Śniegocki, Bartosz Sell, Anna Gajda, Grzegorz Tomczyk and Jan Żmudzki

Abstract

Introduction: The main problem in poultry farming is the difficulty in producing food of animal origin without using antibacterial agents. Because most antibacterial compounds are dispensed in water, some water supply systems can be contaminated by antibiotics which are then administered to the animals unintentionally. This can lead to unexpected increases in antibiotic residues in food of animal origin. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the constant exposure of chicken broilers to enrofloxacin affects the withdrawal time of a therapeutic doxycycline that is intentionally administered to the chickens.

Material and Methods: The concentrations of doxycycline, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin were determined by LC-MS/MS in muscles and liver of the chickens.

Results: Doxycycline residue concentrations in the chicken tissues from the group that received trace amounts of enrofloxacin were nearly 50% greater than those of the group that received only doxycycline.

Conclusion: These results indicated that constant exposure to enrofloxacin in trace amounts significantly influences the residual doxycycline concentration in chicken tissues.

Open access

Katarzyna Górniak, Tadeusz Szydłak, Adam Gaweł, Agnieszka Klimek, Anna Tomczyk, Jerzy Motyka and Krzysztof Bahranowski

Abstract

This paper summarizes information about recently worked bentonite deposits in Slovakia and presents the results of studies on bentonite from the Central Slovakia Volcanic Field (CSVF). The authors compared the mineralogy of commercial bentonites exploited in the Stara Kremnička (Jelšový potok), Kopernica, and Hliník nad Hronom deposits. X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical analyses and microscopy showed that the main component is montmorillonite (37–88%), followed by opal C/CT (5–25%), clinoptilolite (up to 15%), feldspars (3–12%), quartz (up to 8%), biotite (2–5%), and kaolinite (up to 2%). The microscopic imaging provided information valuable for the technological assessment of bentonites, particularly the evaluation of mineralogy determined by XRD. The low variability of the mineral composition of commercial bentonites exploited in the western CSVF, together with the significant reserves and localization of deposits close to the Polish–Slovak state border prove that this raw material deserves more attention from Polish industry.

Open access

Ewa Tomaszewska, Piotr Dobrowolski, Małgorzata Kwiecień, Anna Winiarska-Mieczan, Agnieszka Tomczyk, Siemowit Muszyński and Bożena Gładyszewska

Abstract

Administration of the amino acid copper (Cu) complex ensures higher Cu bioavailability through enhanced absorption from intestine and decreases the dietary Cu level, compared to the recommended Cu dose. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Cu-low diet on the bone development in adolescent rats. Male rats at the age of 6 weeks were used in the 12-week experiment. The control diet provided the required Cu level from sulfate (S-Cu) and other diets were supplemented with Cu as a glycine complex (Cu-Gly) at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of daily requirement. After the 12-week treatment, rats from the Cu-Gly100 group were heavier, compared to the other groups. The copper and calcium plasma and bone concentrations of the rats in the groups treated with the organic form of Cu (irrespective of its dose) was similar to the control values noted in the rats administered with S-Cu. A decrease in the femur weight and length was observed in the Cu-Gly75 and Cu-Gly50 groups. Cu-Gly increased the cross section area, mean relative wall thickness, and cortical index only in the Cu-Gly75 group. A decrease in the ultimate strength, elastic stress, and ultimate stress was noted in the Cu-Gly100 and Cu-Gly75 groups. In the Cu-Gly50 group, a decrease in the ultimate stress and an increase in the maximal elastic strength and bending moment were noted. Adolescent rats treated with Cu-Gly at a Cu-deficient level exhibited a dose-dependent strongly osteoporotic cancellous bone. Lower proteoglycan content was found in groups fed the Cu-low diet. In the control rats supplemented with S-Cu, there was no evident gradient in safranin O staining. It is difficult to indicate which dose of the Cu-Gly complex among the investigated Cu-poor diet exerted a positive effect on bone metabolism. It appears that the use of this Cu-Gly complex at a significantly reduced dose than S-Cu at the recommended dose did not inhibit the development of bone and hyaline cartilage in adolescent rats.

Open access

Krzysztof Gondek, Monika Mierzwa-Hersztek, Bożena Smreczak, Agnieszka Baran, Michał Kopeć, Tomasz Mróz, Paweł Janowski, Tomasz Bajda and Anna Tomczyk

Abstract

The aim of this research was to determine the effect of thermal conversion temperature and plant material addition to sewage sludge on the PAHs content and the activity of selected γ-radionuclides in biochars, and to conduct an ecotoxicological assessment. The pyrolysis of the mixtures of sewage sludge and plant materials at 300°C and such temperature caused an increase in the contents of 2- and 3-ring hydrocarbons. During the pyrolysis of organic materials at 600°C, the amount of the following compounds was reduced in biochars: benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3c,d]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, and benzo[g,h,i]perylene. Among γ-radioisotopes of the elements, natural radiogenic isotopes were dominant. 137Cs was the only artificial radioactive isotope. The pyrolysis of the mixtures of municipal sewage sludge and plant materials revealed that isotope 40K had the highest radioactive activity. In the case of other analysed nuclides, activities of 212Pb, 214Pb, 214Bi, and 137Cs were determined after the sample pyrolysis. The extracts from the mixtures of sewage sludge and plant materials were non-toxic to Vibrio fischeri.