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Michalina Krzyżak, Dominik Maślach, Martyna Skrodzka, Katarzyna Florczyk, Anna Szpak, Bartosz Pędziński, Paweł Sowa and Andrzej Szpak

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to analyse the level and the trends of Potential Years of Life Lost due to the main causes of death in Poland in the years 2002-2011. The material for the study was the information from the Central Statistical Office on the number of deaths due to the main causes of death in Poland in the years 2002-2011. The premature mortality analysis was conducted with the use of the PYLL (Potential Years of Life Lost) indicator. PYLL rate was calculated following the method proposed by J. Romeder, according to which premature mortality was defined as death before the age of 70. Time trends of PYLL rate and the average annual percent change (APC - Annual Percent Change) were assessed using jointpoint models and the Joinpoint Regression Program. In the years 2002-2011, PYLL rate for all-cause deaths decreased by 7.0% among men and 8.1% among women. In 2011, the main reasons for PYLL among men were: external causes (27.6%), cardiovascular diseases (24.2%) and cancers (20.3%). Among women the leading causes were: cancers (41.1%), cardiovascular diseases (19.7%) and external causes (12.5%). PYLL rate increased among men for colorectal cancer, and among women for colorectal and lung cancer. The presented epidemiological situation for premature mortality in Poland shows that in the majority of cases it is caused by preventable deaths, which highlights a need to intensify measures in primary and secondary prevention.

Open access

Barbara Tchórzewska-Cieślak, Dawid Szpak, Izabela Piegdoń and Anna Szlachta

Abstract

The main objective of the study was to analyse and assess the failure rate of the water supply system of a provincial city located in south-eastern Poland. In the analysis the exploitation data provided by the water supply company were used. The received data include, among others, material structure, age of water supply network and failure log. The failure rate analysis of the water supply network was based on the failure rate index λ [failure/(km∙year)]. Based on the performed analysis, it was found that the water company should consider renovating or replacing steel pipes.

Open access

Izabela Piegdoń, Barbara Tchórzewska-Cieślak, Dawid Szpak and Anna Szlachta

Abstract

The operation of the water supply network is related to ensuring the reliability of water supply to each customer. The reliability analysis of water supply can be based on reliability indicators of renewable objects such as water pipes. These indicators take into account the characteristics of the system and its components, by function or numerical characteristics. An example of reliability analysis for main and distribution pipes was made. The average renewal time, the average working time without failure and the reliability of network operation were determined.

Open access

Kamila Dziwota, Agnieszka Dudek, Anna Szpak, Karolina Ludwikowska, Damian Kowalski, Łukasz Drabarek†, Ewelina Dziwota and Marcin Olajossy

Abstract

The basic purpose of this article is to compare how people with low and high self-esteem rated particular values. Additionally, the authors look at gender differences concerning the attitudes toward certain values.

The study involved 268 individuals aged 19-24 (M= 21.71, SD= 1.54). The participants were surveyed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES) and the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS). The results were considered significant at p<0.05. The findings demonstrated that people with lower self-esteem had higher opinion of values like Conformity, Pleasure, and Comfortable Life as well as some Instrumental Values (Self-Control and Politeness), when compared against the individuals with higher self-esteem. On the other hand, they were found to value Courage. There were no differences concerning the way individuals with high and low self-esteem rated Social Recognition, A Sense of Accomplishment and Self-Respect.

Also, the authors noticed that men were more likely to appreciate Hedonistic and Intellectual values, while women attached greater significance to Relational values. There were no gender differences concerning the rating of Aesthetic and Subjective values.