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Open access

Justyna Góraj-Koniarska, Anna Stochmal, Wiesław Oleszek, Jarosław Mołdoch and Marian Saniewski

Abstract

The influence of methyl jasmonate on anthocyanin accumulation in roots of Kalanchoe blossfediana plants was studied. Methyl jasmonate (JA-Me), at a concentration of 5.0 to 40.0 mg.l−1, substantially increased anthocyanin accumulation in roots of intact plants, when it was applied as a solution under natural light conditions. The production of anthocyanin depended on the concentration of methyl jasmonate and the age of the plant. The stimulatory effect was higher in older plants of K. blossfeldiana than in younger ones. When leaves were removed methyl jasmonate slightly stimulated anthocyanin accumulation compared with intact plants. The obtained results indicate that leaves are necessary for the anthocyanin accumulation in the roots. In isolated roots methyl jasmonate did not affect the accumulation of anthocyanins in light conditions. Seven anthocyanins were documented in the roots of control plants and 8 anthocyanins in the roots of JA-Me treated ones. JA-Me increased the level of anthocyanins in roots of old K. blossfeldiana plants 6.8, 6.0 and 3.6-folds, after 4, 8 and 14-days of treatment, respectively.

Open access

Małgorzata Kikowska, Agata Włodarczyk, Anna Stochmal, Jerzy Żuchowski and Barbara Thiem

Summary

Introduction: Callus and cell suspension cultures are widely applied in investigation of production of high-value secondary metabolites, which may be used as cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Plant cell cultures are promising alternative to intact plant sources for the production of plant-derived drugs of industrial importance.

Objective: The aim of the study was to (i) initiate the cell suspension culture of Chaenomeles japonica from homogenous and uniform callus, (ii) stabilize the selected line and (iii) verify its ability to produce the desired groups of secondary metabolites – pentacyclic triterpenoids and polyphenols.

Methods: To establish a cell suspension culture, stabilized and homogeneous callus was selected. Cell cultures were systematically passaged every 2 weeks to fresh liquid medium with the same composition. Biomass from cultures at the growth phase and stationary phase was designated for phytochemical research. UHPLC-DAD-MS analyzes were performed. At the same time, their macroscopic and microscopic observations were carried out.

Results: Cells of suspension culture line A2 were characterized by the intense divisions. Cell culture extracts (both from the growth phase and stationary phase) contained pentacyclic triterpenoids. In addition, phe-nolic compounds (chlorogenic acid and proanthocyanidins type B) and in a small amount also epicatechin are present in the extract of the cells harvested from the growth phase. In the present studies, three pentacyclic triterpenoids were detected and quantified in the extracts of cell suspensions and callus line A2. Ursolic and oleanolic acids were the main triterpenoids in the studied extracts. The cell suspension culture from the growth phase exhibited the highest content of ursolic, oleanolic, and betulinic acid (separately and together).

Conclusion: The cell suspension culture of Chaenomeles japonica is a promising source of pentacyclic triterpenoids.

Open access

Małgorzata Kikowska, Barbara Thiem, Elwira Sliwinska, Monika Rewers, Mariusz Kowalczyk, Anna Stochmal and Jolanta Długaszewska

Abstract

An efficient micropropagation protocol for production of genetically uniform clones of Eryngium campestre L. was developed. To determine the effect of nutritional and hormonal factors on shoot and root development and bioactive compounds production, three variants of media differing in the content of macro- and micronutrients, as well as plant growth regulators of various types and concentrations were tested. The highest regeneration (100%), with over 13 shoots per explant, was induced on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 1.0 mg l−1 benzyladenine (BA) and 0.1 mg l−1 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The in vitro derived shoots multiplied through axillary bud formation were rooted and transferred to an experimental plot with 78% frequency of survival. Flow cytometry showed no variation in nuclear DNA between the seedlings and micropropagated plants. Preliminary thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis indicated that phenolic acids, saponins, flavonoids and acetylenes were present in plant biomass. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis revealed that shoots and roots from in vitro derived plants and root cultures maintained the ability to produce rosmarinic acid (RA), rosmarinic acid hexoside (RA-HEX) and chlorogenic acid (CGA). The highest phenolic acid content was detected in roots of in vitro regenerated plants. The extract from those roots expressed the highest inhibitory effect against bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, as well as dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum.

Open access

Joanna Szczechowiak, Małgorzata Szumacher-Strabel, Anna Stochmal, Magdalena Nadolna, Emilia Pers-Kamczyc, Agnieszka Nowak, Mariusz Kowalczyk and Adam Cieślak

Abstract

This study examined the potential effects of Saponaria officinalis (SO) or Panax ginseng (PG) saponins supplemented to diets differing in the proportion of forage to concentrate on rumen microbial fermentation and methane production in vitro. Two experiments were carried out using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC). In the first experiment the substrate was comprised of a mixture of meadow hay and corn meal in a ratio of 60:40 dry matter (DM; high forage diet; HF). In the second experiment low forage diet (LF) consisting of meadow hay and corn meal in the ratio of 40:60 DM was used. Diets were supplemented with dried roots of SO or PG to provide 1% of triterpenoid saponins in dietary dry matter. All triterpenoid sources significantly (P≤0.05) decreased number of protozoa, by 50% and 72% respectively when HF diet was analysed (first experiment). There were no changes in methane production. In the second experiment (LF), the potential to mitigate methane production was reported for both SO and PG addition, however only in PG a decrease in the protozoal population was detected. Supplementation of plants rich in triterpenoid saponins has been identified as a diet dependent potential factor which has an important role in modulation of rumen fermentation processes. However, further studies are needed to evaluate their effect in animal production.