In civil societies, urban movements are one of the tools in the process of spatial governance. In Poland, urban activism is beginning to develop together with a budding participation in public life. Therefore, there is a need to assess the scope and effects of the urban movements’ actions. The aim of the study was to determine and evaluate their impact on the spatial development in three Polish cities - Poznań, Gdańsk and Gdynia, especially in regard to the procedures in local urban planning and the process of participation. On the basis of the data collected during research and community interviews conducted in these cities, the following factors were analysed: the background and current profile of urban movements, the extent, regularity and effectiveness of their actions, the planning and spatial development initiatives undertaken, their cooperation with the local authorities and their contribution to the enhancement of participatory mechanisms.
The study evaluated the patterns of local innate immune response in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells of pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) alone or co-infected with swine influenza virus (SIV).
Material and Methods
The study was performed on 26 seven-week-old pigs in three groups: PRRSV-infected (n = 11), PRRSV and SIV-infected (n = 11), and control (n = 4). BALF was collected post euthanasia at 2 and 4 dpi (three piglets per inoculated group) and at 21 dpi (all remaining pigs). Expression of IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 mRNA was quantified in BALF cells. PRRSV RNA was quantified in BALF samples using a commercial real-time RT-PCR kit.
The three cytokines IFN-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β presented significant expression changes in all experimental pigs. In PRRSV-infected animals IL-8 also did, but in co-infected subjects IL-6 and IL-10 were the additional upregulated cytokines. The highest number of differentially expressed genes was observed at 4 dpi, and significant differences in cytokine gene expression did not occur between the experimental groups at any other time point. The mean PRRSV load in the BALF of PRRSV-infected pigs was higher than that of co-infected pigs at each time point, having statistical significance only at 4 dpi.
The results of the study indicate that infection with PRRSV alone as well as with SIV interferes with innate and adaptive immune response in the infected host. They also showed that co-infection demonstrates additive effects on IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA expression levels.