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  • Author: Anna Sowiżdżał x
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Barbara Tomaszewska, Anna Sowiżdżał and Anna Chmielowska

Abstract

Geothermal resources have been used in Poland since the 90s of the last century. Since then, several geothermal heating plants, recreation and balneological centers have been operated.

Accessing geothermal resources is possible due to deep boreholes that are either brand-new wells or old but revitalized petroleum and/or exploratory wells. In this case, the construction of production and injection wells is of significant importance. The utilization of deep geothermal energy resources is strongly dependent on the binding domestic law regulations – primarily in case of acquiring the concession enabling an execution of geological and drilling works, and subsequently a proper exploitation.

The paper presents the current state of development of the geothermal energy sector in Poland, indicating examples of exploitation systems based on deep boreholes. Furthermore, the constructions of existing wells are discussed extensively. The existing examples of old but reconstructed wells in Poland, are characterized. The importance of national law and its influence on the development of a geothermal investment is highlighted, as well.

Open access

Anna Sowiżdżał and Roman Semyrka

Abstract

Petrophysical investigations are fundamental to natural resource exploration. In order to recognise the geothermal potential of sedimentary rocks in central Poland, 259 samples were collected from prospective deep-lying geothermal reservoirs. Parameters measured include bulk density, skeletal density, effective porosity, permeability, average pore diameter and specific surface. Results indicate that at great depths (mostly > 3,000 m below surface) sedimentary rocks show low values of porosity (mainly less than 5%) and permeability (only sporadically in excess of 1 md). These values call for a petrothermal use of reservoirs, for which an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) was developed. Reservoirs suited for the EGS are Carboniferous and Lower Triassic sandstones in the central part of Poland (Mogilno-Łódź Trough region and a small part of the Kujawy Swell and Fore-Sudetic regions). In addition, Carboniferous limestones in this area are potentially prospective.

Open access

Maciej Miecznik, Anna Sowiżdżał, Barbara Tomaszewska and Leszek Pająk

Abstract

The Chociwel region is part of the Szczecin Trough and constitutes the northeastern segment of the extended Szczecin-Gorzów Synclinorium. Lower Jurassic reservoirs of high permeability of up to 1145 mD can discharge geothermal waters with a rate exceeding 250 m3/h and temperatures reach over 90°C in the lowermost part of the reservoirs. These conditions provide an opportunity to generate electricity from heat accumulated in geothermal waters using binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) systems. A numerical model of the natural state and exploitation conditions was created for the Chociwel area with the use of TOUGH2 geothermal simulator (i.e., integral finite-difference method). An analysis of geological and hydrogeothermal data indicates that the best conditions are found to the southeast of the town of Chociwel, where the bottom part of the reservoir reaches 3 km below ground. This would require drilling two new wells, namely one production and one injection. Simulated production with a flow rate of 275 m3/h, a temperature of 89°C at the wellhead, 30°C injection temperature and wells being 1.2 km separated from each other leads to a small temperature drop and moderate requirements for pumping power over a 50 years’ time span. The ORC binary system can produce at maximum 592.5 kW gross power with the R227ea found as the most suitable working fluid. Geothermal brine leaving the ORC system with a temperature c. 53°C can be used for other purposes, namely mushroom growing, balneology, swimming pools, soil warming, de-icing, fish farming and for heat pumps.