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  • Author: Anna Snarska x
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The aim of the study was to determine the suitability of basic haematological, biochemical, and gasometric tests in checking the effectiveness of transfusion therapy in foals during isoerythrolysis. The number of red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and blood pH was determined immediately before and several times after blood transfusion. The concentration of serum free bilirubin was also measured to confirm haemolysis. Fluids (0.9% NaCl, multielectrolytic fluid, 5% glucose) and antibiotics (penicillin, amikacin) were provided to the foals. The lowest values of haematological parameters were observed before transfusion. This was accompanied by decreased partial pressure of oxygen, low pH, and increased arterial carbon dioxide tension. Transfusion of whole blood led to a gradual normalisation of the haematological parameters, also accompanied by the normalisation of gasometric indicators (decrease in pCO2 and pO2 and pH increase). Monitoring of selected haematological and gasometric parameters allows to evaluate the efficacy of blood transfusion during treatment of haemolytic disease of foals.


Introduction: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a substance widely used in industry for the production of polycarbonates and epoxy resins used in packaging and containers for beverages, contact lenses, compact discs (CDs), window panes, and many other elements. This compound belongs to the group of polyphenols and xenoestrogens commonly found in the human environment. What we know about BPA is still insufficient to enable us to protect our health against its adverse effects, and current knowledge of the influence of BPA on erythroblastic cell lines in bone marrow is rather fragmentary. The aim of the experiment was to assess the effect of two doses of BPA (0.05 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg b.w. per day) on myeloid haematopoiesis.

Material and Methods: During this experiment, the number of all types of cells in the erythroblastic cell line was evaluated in porcine bone marrow before and after BPA administration.

Results: The obtained results clearly indicate changes in haematopoietic activity of the bone marrow, which was demonstrated by a decrease in erythroblastic cell line production in both experimental groups. The haematological effects of the bone marrow changes were anaemia, caused by a number of erythrocytes which was depressed due to their immaturity, and a significant decrease in mean cellular volume in both groups.

Conclusion: The harmful effect of high and low doses of BPA on haematopoietic processes was proved.


Introduction: Statins are pharmacological agents commonly used to lower serum cholesterol level. The aim of the experiment was to investigate the effect of the statin simvastatin on thrombopoiesis in the porcine model because it is the closest to the human one regarding physiological and genetic similarities.

Material and Methods: The study was conducted on a group of 32 pigs randomly divided into two equal groups: control and experimental. The pigs were treated for 28 and 56 days with simvastatin in a dose of 40 mg per day per animal. Cytological evaluation of bone marrow smears was performed to assess the average number of all types of cells during thrombopoiesis as was analysis of haematological parameters to assess PLT and MPV.

Results: During the course of the experiment statistically significant changes in the number of promegakaryocytes were observed. Other parameters also showed some fluctuations during the study. However, these changes were not statistically significant.

Conclusion: The obtained results clearly indicate a toxic influence of simvastatin on the process of thrombopoiesis and prove that statins reduce mean platelet volume, thus affecting the process of clot formation through the period of administration in a duration-dependent manner.


Blood morphology in dogs infected with intracellular parasites of the genera Babesia and Ehrlichia was examined. The parasites were detected in peripheral blood smears stained by the May-Grünwald-Giemsa method. During the parasitic invasion, a decrease in thrombocyte counts was observed. This was connected with forming platelet aggregates. It was noted that the number of giant platelets simultaneously increased.



Simvastatin is a substance which is commonly used as a medicine to reduce cholesterol level. Unfortunately, it shows numerous side effects. Simvastatin affects various internal organs, and among other detriments to health may cause persistent muscle weakness, osteolytic processes, headaches, and rashes. Until now knowledge of the influence of simvastatin on bone marrow cells has been rather scant and fragmentary.

Material and Methods

During this experiment the numbers of all types of cells in the leukocytic system of porcine bone marrow were evaluated after 28 and 56 days of oral administration of simvastatin at a dose of 40 mg/day/animal.


Simvastatin caused an increase in the number of all types of cells in the leukocytic system, and the most visible fluctuations concerned promyelocytes.


Observations obtained during the present study indicated that the results of the action of simvastatin on porcine bone marrow differ from those observed in other mammal species, including human. This may be due to various metabolic pathways within the bone marrow in the particular species, but the exact mechanisms of these actions are unknown at the present time.


Introduction: In calves, hyposelenosis degenerates skeletal muscles in different parts of the body. The extent of damage to muscle cells can be diagnosed by determining the activity of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The aim of this study was to analyse variations in the serum levels of LDH isoenzymes in calves with nutritional muscular dystrophy (NMD), to determine the applicability of this parameter for diagnosing NMD, and to describe the influence of hyposelenosis on total protein (TP), triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol (CHOL) levels.

Material and Methods: Two groups of calves (n = six animals per group) were used. After birth, control group calves (SC) were intramuscularly administered 10 ml of a preparation containing selenium (Se) and vitamin E, and experimental group animals (SE) that were not injected. Blood was collected after 5, 15, and 25 days, and the concentrations of Se, vitamin E, TP, TG, and CHOL and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), CK, and LDH fractions were determined.

Results: Hypocholesterolaemia and elevated TG levels were found in SE group calves whose LDH fractions revealed a significant increase in LDH4 and LDH5 activity and a decrease in LDH1 activity when electrophoretically separated.

Conclusions: Nutritional muscular dystrophy is accompanied by hypocholesterolaemia and elevated TG levels caused by muscle lipolysis. LDH4 and LDH5 activity parameters assist early diagnosis of NMD in calves.