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Anna Sikorska and Kazimierz Banasik

Parameter identification of a conceptual rainfall-runoff model for a small urban catchment

As a consequence of city expansion, the conditions of catchments located in urban areas have been permanently changing. This leads to an increase of flood risk in an urban area resulting from overflows of small streams, which are not prepared to receive more water. Moreover, hydrological data from long-time period are usually not available for small streams in an urban area and are limited to the last few years or to the moment after introduced changes within catchment in relation to urbanization. Therefore, it becomes hardly possible to use direct methods of estimating flood flows for small streams, which needs a reach data set. For that reason, mathematical modelling is growing as a basic method of evaluation of flood flows in urban area with limited information of a catchment.

The object of this paper is to identify parameters of a conceptual model of rainfall-runoff process within a small ungauged urban catchment and to verify how chosen characteristics of a model depend on chosen rainfall characteristics. The results of modelling of pluvial flooding, conducted in a small urban catchment - Służew Creek catchment (located in Warsaw, Poland), have been presented in the paper. This catchment has been monitored by Department of Water Engineering and Environmental Restoration (Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW) for a few years.

Next, the results present a comparison of estimation of instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH) by the Rao, Delleur and Sarma equations with the one established on recorded data. This empirical method consists of the ratio of urbanized area within catchment as well as in the duration and amount of an effective rainfall during a storm event. Moreover, including ratio of urbanized area allows user to adopt this method in a simple way to new conditions of the catchment, which is important as far as urban areas are considered.

Considered IUHs were based on the Nash model, in which catchment is depicted as a cascade of N linear reservoirs with the same retention parameter k. For separation of the effective rainfall from the recorded storm the CN-SCS method was applied. To compare two methods, IUHs were estimated basing on three hydrological years (2007-2009) for a Berensewicz Pond profile and the comparison was made on the base of an IUH characteristic value - Lag time.

The results of identification and verification of characteristics values of IUH (Lag and k) for Służew Creek catchment, presented in this paper, have indicated a statistical correlation between lag time and the sum of total and effective precipitation, and between k parameter and the sum of total and effective precipitation as well. Moreover, the analysis has shown that IUH characteristics estimated with the use of Rao, Delleur and Sarma equation has given promising results in comparison with the characteristics of measured IUH. Therefore, this method could be useful to estimate and predict flood flows in ungauged urban catchments in situation of limited information. However, this research needs further investigation and verification.

Open access

Anna Modrzejewska-Sikorska, Filip Ciesielczyk and Teofil Jesionowski

Synthesis of inorganic oxide composites with the use of postgalvanic waste solutions of copper(II) sulfate

The study was undertaken to obtain an oxide composite (inorganic colourful pigment) in the method based on the use of postgalvanic waste solution of copper(II) sulfate. The conditions of the process of precipitation of synthetic CuOSiO2 were optimised by checking the effect of the concentration and the volume ratio of the reagents and the temperature on the physico-chemical parameters of the final product. The oxide composite obtained in the optimum conditions was characterised by high refinement of particles and large specific surface area BET of 326 m2/g.

Open access

Julia Sikorska, Maciej Trojan, Anna Jakucińska and Dominika Farley

Abstract

Research on prosocial behaviors in primates often relies on the two-choice paradigm. Motoric lateralization is a surprisingly big problem in this field of research research, as it may influence which lever will ultimately be chosen by the actor. The results of lateralization studies on primates do not form a clear picture of that phenomenon, which makes it difficult to address the problem during research. The authors discuss possible ways of managing this confounding variable.

Open access

Beata Karabová, Anna E. Sikorska, Kazimierz Banasik and Silvia Kohnová

Abstract

Parameters determination of a conceptual rainfall-runoff model for a small catchment in Carpathians. One of the most important tasks in hydrology is to simulate and forecast hydrologic processes and variables. To achieve this, various linear and nonlinear hydrologic models were developed. One of the most commonly applied rainfall-runoff models is the Nash’s model of the Instantaneous Unit Hydrograph (IUH) (Nash, 1957) used jointly with the CN-NRCS method. Within this paper, the Nash’s model was applied to a small forested basin (Vištucký Creek, Slovakia) to reconstruct rainfall-runoff events based on the recorded precipitation. The Vištucký Creek catchment, located in the Little Carpathians, is a part of the flood protection management of regional sites in the Little Carpathians. Therefore, the object of this paper is, first, to determine the parameters of a conceptual rainfall-runoff model for the Vištucký creek catchment, second, to analyse how the selected characteristics of the model depend on the rainfall characteristics, and third, to compare obtained results with a similar study of Sikorska and Banasik (2010). The computer programme developed at the Dept. of Water Engineering (WULS-SGGW) was used to obtain the rainfall-runoff characteristics based on the Nash´s model. The derived characteristics were parameters of the Nash’s model (N, k, lag time) and rainfall-runoff characteristics (sum of total and effective precipitation, rainfall duration, runoff coefficient, time to IUH peak, value of IUH peak, goodness of fit). A relatively small effective precipitation from the rainfall events was derived. For the purpose of the analysis, a correlation between the lag time (and k parameter) and the sum of the total and effective precipitation was used. The use of the conceptual rainfall-runoff model (Nash´s model) for the small catchment in Carpathians was proved to give satisfactory results. The rainfall characteristics derived in this study are comparable to the results obtained by Spál et. al (2011), who used the same catchment in their analysis. Interestingly, our analysis indicated that there is a correlation between the rainfall duration and the lag time, what is opposite to the compared results of Sikorska and Banasik (2010).

Open access

Artur Burmańczuk, Grabowski Tomasz, Małgorzata Gbylik-Sikorska, Anna Gajda and Cezary Kowalski

Abstract

Introduction: There are many veterinary products containing β-lactam antibiotics which are used for mastitis treatment in cows. The aim of the study was to determine whether mastitis could have any effect on amoxicillin (AMX) or penicillin G procaine (PEN) withdrawal period from milk, in the context of current maximum residue limits established by the European Commission.

Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 17 dairy Black and White cows with clinical mastitis during the lactation period. The first group (n = 8) received 200 mg of amoxicillin (AMX), whereas the second group (n = 9) received 200,000 IU/mg of penicillin G procaine (PEN) by intramammary administration. For the measurement of AMX and PEN concentrations in milk, the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was applied. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed using Phoenix WinNonlin 6.4 software.

Results: The determined AMX and PEN half-life values in the mammary gland suggest that the drug withdrawal is at a level of 99.9% within 81 h (≈3.5 days) and 116 h (≈5 days) after administration of AMX and PEN, respectively. The present research indicates that, at 60 h after administration, the average PEN concentration in the milk from cows with clinical signs of mastitis may still reach 4.96 g/kg and that of AMX can even be 6.92 g/kg.

Conclusion: The results obtained confirm that, in mastitis cases, a 72-h withdrawal period is sufficient for elimination of AMX to a lower level than the established maximum residue limit (MRL) values. However, in the case of PEN, at 69 h after administration, the drug concentration may be close to that of the determined MRL.

Open access

Joanna Nieczuja-Dwojacka, Anna Siniarska, Aneta Sikorska and Sławomir Kozieł

Abstract

The main objective of the study was to determine the relationship between physique, maturation and some environmental factors. The study was conducted in Warsaw, between 2012 and 2013 in randomly selected schools. The material included 171 girls, aged 12-20 years. Body height and weight, upper and lower extremity length, subcutaneous fat folds on arm, subscapular and abdominal, circumferences of arm, chest, waist and hip were measured. Body proportion indices were calculated. The questionnaire form provided information on parental education and profession, and the number of children in family. Girls were asked about age at menarche, number of daily meals, level of physical activity, participation is sport, and level of stress at home and at school. The principal component analysis was applied and 4 factors were extracted from the set of living condition characteristics (F1 - Parental education & father’s occupation, F2 - Mother’s occupation and the number of children, F3 - Stress, F4 - Physical activity and number of daily meals). Regression analysis allowed to evaluate the association of body build characteristics and age at menarche with the four factors. Factor 1 and 4 were the only ones which showed a statistically significant association with body build. The results showed that girls who were taller, with smaller arm and waist circumferences and less adiposity came from families with higher parental education and better father’s profession. Taller stature, longer legs and less adiposity characterized girls who were more physically active and consumed more than three meals a day.

Open access

Małgorzata Gbylik-Sikorska, Andrzej Posyniak, Anna Gajda and Tomasz Błądek

Abstract

The study presents a method for determination of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in albumin and freeze-dried-eggs with the use of liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The procedure enables a simple isolation of fluoroquinolones from albumin based on extraction with acetonitrile, and from freeze-dried-eggs with acetonitrile under alkaline conditions. The samples have been analysed on ultracarb C8 liquid chromatography column. The gradient elution programmes consisted of the mixture of 0.03 M phosphoric acid with 0.002 M sodium 1-heptanesulfonate monohydrate and acetonitrile. The method has been validated according to requirements of the European Decision 2002/657/EC. Recoveries ranged from 78% to 83% for spiked freeze-dried-eggs and from 89% to 91% for albumin. The developed method can be applied for determination and confirmation of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in albumin and freeze-dried-eggs.

Open access

Kazimierz Banasik, Adam Krajewski, Anna Sikorska and Leszek Hejduk

Abstract

Runoff estimation is a key component in various hydrological considerations. Estimation of storm runoff is especially important for the effective design of hydraulic and road structures, for the flood flow management, as well as for the analysis of land use changes, i.e. urbanization or low impact development of urban areas. The curve number (CN) method, developed by Soil Conservation Service (SCS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture for predicting the flood runoff depth from ungauged catchments, has been in continuous use for ca. 60 years. This method has not been extensively tested in Poland, especially in small urban catchments, because of lack of data. In this study, 39 rainfall-runoff events, collected during four years (2009–2012) in a small (A=28.7 km2), urban catchment of Służew Creek in southwest part of Warsaw were used, with the aim of determining the CNs and to check its applicability to ungauged urban areas. The parameters CN, estimated empirically, vary from 65.1 to 95.0, decreasing with rainfall size and, when sorted rainfall and runoff separately, reaching the value from 67 to 74 for large rainfall events.

Open access

Małgorzata Gbylik-Sikorska, Anna Gajda, Artur Burmańczuk, Tomasz Grabowski and Andrzej Posyniak

Abstract

Introduction: Quercetin is a polyphenolic flavonoid which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as a natural therapeutic agent with a broad spectrum of activities (antioxidant, anticancer, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antibacterial). The aim of this study was to develop and validate a rapid and simple ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of quercetin in milk.

Material and Methods: Sample preparation was based on a liquid-liquid extraction with 0.5% formic acid in acetonitrile. The chromatographic separation was performed on a ZORBAX SB-C18 column with methanol and 0.5% formic acid as a mobile phase.

Results: The procedure was successfully validated. The mean recovery of the analyte was 98%, with the corresponding intra- and inter-day variation less than 10% and 15%, respectively, and the repeatability and reproducibility were in the range of 3%–7.2% and 6.1%–12%, respectively. The lowest level of quantification was 1.0 μg/kg.

Conclusion: The proposed method was successfully applied in evaluating the pharmacokinetics of quercetin in milk obtained from dairy cows with clinical mastitis after intramammary administration.

Open access

Małgorzata Gbylik-Sikorska, Andrzej Posyniak, Kamila Mitrowska, Anna Gajda, Tomasz Błądek, Tomasz Śniegocki and Jan Żmudzki

Abstract

The occurrence of commonly used veterinary antimicrobial agents was investigated in 159 fresh water, 443 fish, and 150 sediment samples from Polish rivers and lakes. The agents included aminoglycosides, ß-lactams, diaminopyrimidines, fluoroquinolones, lincosamides, macrolides, pleuromutilins, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines. The analysis was performed by three different sample preparation procedures for each matrix and it was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation source in positive mode, under the same conditions. All analytical methods used were validated and showed good sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. The LOQ was in the range from 5 μg/kg to 125 μg/kg for fish samples, from 0.02 μg/L to 10 μg/L for fresh water samples, and from 1 μg/kg to 8 μg/kg for sediment samples.