Study aim: The aim of the study was to determine the weekly energy expenditure measuring MET/min/week based on data collected through the Canada Fitness Survey (CFS), according to the classification used in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and to verify the adopted method to assess the level of physical activity in students of physical education.
Material and methods: The study involved 116 female students (21.1 ± 1.6) and 276 male students (21.2 ± 1.7), studying Physical Education at Kazimierz Wielki University. Physical activity (PA) of respondents assessed using the Canada Fitness Survey was converted to energy expenditure in MET/min/week using the criteria established in the IPAQ. Body composition was assessed according to bioelectrical impedance.
Results: A significantly smaller fat fraction was observed in the group of students with high physical activity (PA) (p < 0.01). In women, there was a significant relation between FAT% and all analysed characteristics of physical activity: total physical activity (TPA) – 0.274, vigorous intensity (VI) – 0.216, number of days spent on physical activity (DTPA) – 0.199 and number of days spent on vigorous intensity (DVI) – 0.202 (p < 0.05). In men, a significant relation was found between all the analysed tissue components and the adopted variables of PA (FAT% vs. TPA – 0.145, VI – 0.203, DTPA – 0.187; FATkg vs. TPA – 0.123, VI – 0.186, DTPA – 0.178; FATkg vs. DVI – 0.131). BMI significantly correlated with VI (–0.162) and DVI (–0.140), p < 0.05.
Conclusions: Based on data collected using the CFS on the type and frequency of PA during a week, we can determine the level of activity in a measurable way, using the IPAQ classification. There is a significant relationship between thus determined physical activity levels and body composition in both women and men, which proves the accuracy of the adopted method of converting weekly energy expenditure to MET/min/week.
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three feed mixtures based on various feed components, including extruded rice, and differing in the source and level of animal protein on rearing performance and biochemical and haematological blood parameters of piglets in the peri-weaning period. The experiments covered 96 piglets, crosses of PIC hybrid sows with a P76 boar that were divided into three experimental groups. The piglets from group I received a prestarter diet based on extruded wheat and protein of both plant and animal origin, whilst those from groups II and III were fed prestarter diets containing: group II - extruded rice (protein as in group I), and group III - extruded rice with protein components of exclusively animal origin. The addition of extruded rice and the increased content of animal protein in feed mixture improved the rearing performance of piglets (higher body weight gains and more efficient feed conversion ratio). The feeding of piglets with the diets containing extruded rice and increased animal protein components (III group) was also observed to stimulate lipid metabolism, which resulted in reduced plasma levels of LDL-cholesterol and in increased percentage of HDL-cholesterol, which contributed to increased blood levels of urea compared to the other experimental groups.
There is substantial evidence that somatotype and success in sport and physical performance are positively related. Existing somatotype data on athletes are useful as guidelines for sport selection and choice of training appropriate to the enhancement of desired somatotype characteristics. Updated somatotype data from non-athlete reference groups complement comparative analysis applied in assessing the effects of the training process and selection. The aim of this study was to determine the somatotype of untrained girls studying at Warsaw University of Technology in 2011, in order to create a current reference group for comparison, and to investigate the difference in body build of female volleyball players compared with the non-athlete group. Twelve Second Division female volleyball players (age 21.6±1.5 years, body height 177.3±6.2 cm, body mass 71.0±6.5 kg, training experience 8.4±3.4 years) and 150 female untrained students of the University of Technology in Warsaw (age 20.0±6.4 years, body height 166.5±6.4 cm, body mass 59.7±8.4 kg) participated in a study carried out in 2011. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. The volleyball players were a little older and were significantly taller and heavier than female students (p<0.05). Significant differences between the groups were found in breadth of the elbow, breadth of the wrist, biacromial diameter, arm circumference and crus circumference (p<0.05). The mean somatotype of the volleyball players was 4.5-3.4-2.8. (4.5±1.0-3.4±1.2-2.8±1.3), whilst that of the untrained students was 5.1-3.6-2.8. (5.1±1.4-3.6±1.1-2.8±1.3); the groups did not differ significantly in somatotype. The groups were significantly different in body composition (F [kg] and LBM [kg]), as estimated by BIA and anthropometric methods (p<0.05). No differences were observed between the groups in the skinfolds. Morphological characteristics of the female volleyball players depended on the competition level and performance. Somatic features of the bodies of the volleyball players were dominated by the height of the body and the associated magnitude of the constituent characteristics.
Somatotype Variables Related to Muscle Torque and Power in Judoists
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between somatotype, muscle torque and power output in judoists. Thirteen judoists (age 18.4±3.1 years, body height 178.6±8.2 cm, body mass 82.3±15.9 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath-Carter method. Maximal muscle torques of elbow, shoulder, knee, hip and trunk flexors as well as extensors were measured under static conditions. Power outputs were measured in 5 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, 10 s each, at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight. The Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between all parameters. The mean somatotype of judoists was: 3.5-5.9-1.8 (values for endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy, respectively). The values (mean±SD) of sum of muscle torque of ten muscle groups (TOTAL) was 3702.2±862.9 N × m. The power output ranged from 393.2±79.4 to 1077.2±275.4 W. The values of sum of muscle torque of right and left upper extremities (SUE), sum of muscle torque of right and left lower extremities (SLE), sum of muscle torque of the trunk (ST) and TOTAL were significantly correlated with the mesomorphic component (0.68, 0.80, 0.71 and 0.78, respectively). The ectomorphic component correlated significantly with values of SUE, SLE, ST and TOTAL (-0.69, -0.81, -0.71 and -0.79, respectively). Power output was also strongly correlated with both mesomorphy (positively) and ectomorphy (negatively). The results indicated that the values of mesomorphic and ectomorphic somatotype components influence muscle torque and power output, thus body build could be an important factor affecting results in judo.
Study aim: Systematic physical activity is an effective preventive measure that supports the preservation of physical health and psychological health. Three expressions employed that relate to the work carried out with MET-min/week as a measure of the level of total physical activity are intense activity, moderate activity, and walking. These were applied to students studying Physical Education. In the process, those who failed to meet the requirements for the ‘sufficient’ level according to IPAQ criteria and as recommended by the WHO were identified.
Material and methods: Research was conducted amongst 146 students: 50 from Charles University (CU) and 96 from the University of Physical Education in Warsaw (UPE). The total physical activity of students was determined according to the accepted standards (IPAQ). WHO recommendations concerning physical activity per week were converted into MET-min/week used by IPAQ as follows: physical activity needs to achieve at least 1200 MET-min/week to increase its effect on health.
Results: The study of Physical Education students at CU shows that they were significantly more active than their counterparts at UPE. Total physical activity per week as measured by IPAQ at CU was 9525.2 ± 4275.9 for men and 10964.3 ± 4092.0 MET-min/week for women. At UPE, this was 4034.3 ± 2617.8 for men and 2469.8 ± 1721.2 MET-min/week for women. The difference in total levels of physical activity carried out by these students was found to depend largely upon their involvement in championship sports. Inclusion of WHO recommendations in the assessment of physical activity of students increased the proportion of individuals with low activity levels, particularly in the group of not-training students.
Conclusions: It is recommended either that the WHO criterion “of activity level for health” be added to the IPAQ classification, thus toughening the requirements of the moderate level of activity, or, alternatively, an additional threshold of completing at least 1200 MET-min/week be applied, with the recommendation that this is achieved on a regular basis.
The study is aimed at evaluation of the effect of regular physical activity on total and subcutaneous body fat and its distribution in boys aged 10 to 16 years. A three-year longitudinal study was carried out in order to monitor physical development in 237 boys from sports schools and regular schools in Warsaw, Poland. The boys were selected so that their rate of puberty changes was similar based on evaluation of voice and facial hair. The authors measured 5 skinfolds in the following sites: triceps, calf, subscapular, suprailiac, and abdominal skinfolds. The percentage fraction of total body fat in body mass was measured by means of Tanita TBF 300 electronic body composition analyser. A limb fat to trunk fat ratio (LF/TF) was also calculated in order to evaluate the type of distribution of subcutaneous fat in boys and monitor its changes as affected by regular high physical activity throughout puberty. Lower total body fat and subcutaneous fat in boys from sports schools was the effect of considerably higher physical activity. It was demonstrated that with some minimal values of total body fat and subcutaneous fat, physical activity did not cause a reduction in body fat. It was found that elevated physical activity in boys is conducive to development of a more limb-oriented (peripheral) fatness, which is more favourable to human health
The aim of the study was to develop a method for measurement and analysis of kinematics of the pelvic girdle movement in breaststroke swimming to support training of technical skills. The measurements were performed in five elite breaststroke swimmers. A recording device for triaxial accelerations and triaxial rotational angular velocity was mounted on the dorsal part of the pelvic girdle of the athlete. The task of the athlete was to swim one length of the 50 m swimming pool with the intensity similar to competition. From the consecutive cycles of swimming motion, we developed individual mean graphical and numerical profiles of the kinematics of the pelvic girdle movement within the average cycle. Mean basic values of the characteristics were compared with the values documented in the literature obtained by means of the video analysis or using the method of measurement of the velocity of the unwound rope. The comparison revealed that the results in the group studied were very similar to the results obtained using other methods and were typical of elite athletes. Analysis of the motion profiles for the pelvic girdle in breaststroke swimmers indicated that the results obtained reflected individual technique of performing individual phases of swimming cycles. The proposed measurement method, presentation and analysis of the profile of the pelvic girdle motion in breaststroke swimming represents a good tool for fast and effective biomechanical evaluation of motion technique components.
Study aim: The aim of this study was to determine the body composition and somatotype of untrained male students studying at Warsaw University of Technology in 2011, in order to create a current reference group for comparison, and to investigate the difference in body build of male judoists compared with the non-athlete group.
Materials and methods: Fifteen male judo athletes (age 18.6 ± 1.9 years, body height 177.4 ± 8.5 cm, body mass 80.3 ± 15.8 kg, training experience 10.0 ± 2.8) and 154 male untrained students of the Warsaw University of Technology (age 20.1 ± 0.9 years, body height 180.9 ± 7.2 cm, body mass 75.6 ± 10.9 kg) participated in the study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath- Carter method.
Results: The mean somatotype of the untrained students was 220.127.116.11, whilst that of the judo athletes was 18.104.22.168; the groups differed significantly in their mesomorphy and ectomorphy components. Significant differences between the groups were found in breadth of wrist, bicristal diameter and arm circumference (p < 0.05). The groups were also significantly different in body composition as estimated by BIA and anthropometric methods (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: The morphological characteristics of the judo athletes differed from those of the untrained men. The somatic profile of body build for athletes in this sport seems to be optimal for achieving high results, the somatotype not having changed since the 1990s.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of a wide range of anthropometric parameters with BMD in normal-weight women: handball players and healthy untrained students. Thirteen former female handball players, (age 21.2±0.9 years, body mass 64.2±6.1 kg, training experience 6.7±2.4 years) and 51 randomly selected untrained students (age 20.6±1.2 years, body mass 58.1±6.8 kg), were examined. The anthropometric measurements included 16 variables. BMD was measured on the radius of the non-dominant hand at distal and proximal points with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), using a Norland pDEXA densitometer. Relationships between BMD and anthropometric variables were assessed in 64 normal-weight women (BMI≥18.5 and ≤ 24.99 kg/m2), by calculating Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient. We found a significant positive relationship between bone mass characteristics and biacromial breadth (0.30-0.53), calf (0.28-0.47) and arm (0.27-0.42) girth corrected, and lean body mass (LBM) (kg) (0.38-0.61) and (%) (0,27) in the group of normal-weight women. The student groups were significantly different (analysis of variance with Scheffé post hoc test, p<0.001) in BMD, bone mineral content (BMC) and Z-score at both measured points. The former handball players were also characterized by higher body mass and LBM (kg), as well as corrected body girths and biacromial breadth (p<0.001), compared to untrained students. The groups did not differ significantly in body height or total fat. The morphological profile of the female handball players is conducive to BMD. Skeletal characteristics and muscle tissue had a significant beneficial effect on bone mineral characteristics in young women with normal weight.
The aim of the study was to investigate changes of strength and power of the lower extremities in adolescent handball players during a two-year training cycle. Thirty-one male handball players (age 16.0 ± 0.2 years, body mass 81.4 ± 9.7 kg, body height 188.2 ± 6.4 cm) took part in this study. All tests were conducted three times at the beginning of a one-year training programme. The maximum joint torque (JT) of flexors and extensors of the elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and trunk was measured under static conditions. Power of lower extremities was assessed with a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test on a cycloergometer and jump tests: akimbo counter-movement jump (ACMJ), counter-movement jump (CMJ) and spike jump tests on a force plate. Peak power (PP) increased from 914.8 ± 93.9 to 970.0 ± 89.2 and 1037.8 ± 114.4 W (p < 0.05) following the RSA test results. Maximum power increased significantly (p < 0.05) in ACMJ (1951.9 ± 359.7 to 2141.9 ± 378.5 and 2268.5 ± 395.9 W) and CMJ tests (2646.3 ± 415.6 to 2831.2 ± 510.8 and 3064.6 ± 444.5 W). Although significant differences in JT (p < 0.05) were observed during the two year period, their values related to body mass for the lower right extremity, sum of the trunk and sum of all muscle groups increased significantly between the first and the second measurement (from 13.7 ± 1.8 to 14.58 ± 1.99 N·m·kg-1, from 9.3 ± 1.5 to 10.39 ± 2.16 N·m·kg-1, from 43.4 ± 5.2 to 46.31 ± 6.83 N·m·kg-1, respectively). The main finding of the study is that PP in the RSA test and maximal power in the ACMJ and CMJ increase in relation to training experience and age in the group of youth handball players.