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  • Author: Anna Orłowska x
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Territorial and Social Diversity of Social Security in Poland in Years 2010-2014


Subject and purpose of work: The discussion undertaken in this article concerns differences in the level of social security. The main aim is to analyse the territorial and social diversity of social security in Poland in years 2010-2014. Materials and methods: The research study presented was carried out on the basis of the analysis and synthesis of literature, statistical data, as well as the author’s reflections. Results: Differences in the level of social security to a large extent depend on the following factors: the territorial location and the size of the locality, age group, types of socio-economic groups, and type of household. Social security level is diversified territorially and socially. Conclusions: The residents of small cities from the north-east part of the country and people aged between 16-24 are most threatened with poverty. In the case of Poland a high percentage of poverty threat is a matter of concern amongst working people. The lowest poverty level is in the group of 55- year olds, that is people receiving retirement benefits.

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Diagnostic reliability of different RT-PCR protocols for the detection of bluetongue virus serotype 14 (BTV-14)


Introduction: The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is one of the most extensively used methods for identification of animals infected with bluetongue virus (BTV). There are several RT-PCR protocols published and several real-time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) commercial kits available on the market. Because Poland faced BTV-14 infection in 2012, different protocols were implemented in the country to confirm the RT-PCR results positive for this virus. The article presents a comparative study of several RT-PCR protocols and discusses their diagnostic reliability and applicability.

Material and Methods: Six rtRT-PCR/RT-PCR protocols were compared for the laboratory diagnostic of fourteen BTV-14 isolates circulating in Poland in 2012–2014.

Results: All 14 isolates were positive in the protocols of Shaw et al. (18), a commercial LSI NS3 kit, and Eschbaumer et al. (5). Four out of fourteen BTV-14 isolates gave positive results in Hoffmann’s 2 and 6 protocols and none of the 14 isolates yielded positive results in Maan et al. (8) method. Phylogenetic study of a short fragment of 450 nt of BTV segment 2 (258–696 positions) revealed 100% identity within Polish variants and with Russian and Spanish isolates.

Conclusion: The paper points to the possible false negative results in the diagnosis of BTV infections depending on the protocol used.

Open access
Evaluation of direct metagenomics and target enriched approaches for high-throughput sequencing of field rabies viruses



High-throughput sequencing (HTS) identifies random viral fragments in environmental samples metagenomically. High reliability gains it broad application in virus evolution, host-virus interaction, and pathogenicity studies. Deep sequencing of field samples with content of host genetic material and bacteria often produces insufficient data for metagenomics and must be preceded by target enrichment. The main goal of the study was the evaluation of HTS for complete genome sequencing of field-case rabies viruses (RABVs).

Material and Methods

The material was 23 RABVs isolated mainly from red foxes and one European bat lyssavirus-1 isolate propagated in neuroblastoma cells. Three methods of RNA isolation were tested for the direct metagenomics and RABV-enriched approaches. Deep sequencing was performed with a MiSeq sequencer (Illumina) and reagent v3 kit. Bioinformatics data were evaluated by Kraken and Centrifuge software and de novo assembly was done with metaSPAdes.


Testing RNA extraction procedures revealed the deep sequencing scope superiority of the combined TRIzol/column method. This HTS methodology made it possible to obtain complete genomes of all the RABV isolates collected in the field. Significantly greater rates of RABV genome coverages (over 5,900) were obtained with RABV enrichment. Direct metagenomic studies sequenced the full length of 6 out of 16 RABV isolates with a medium coverage between 1 and 71.


Direct metagenomics gives the most realistic illustration of the field sample microbiome, but with low coverage. For deep characterisation of viruses, e.g. for spatial and temporal phylogeography during outbreaks, target enrichment is recommended as it covers sequences much more completely.

Open access
Rabies Epidemiological Situation in Poland in 2009 and 2010


The paper describes the data concerning rabies in domestic animals and in wildlife as well as in bats in Poland in 2009 and 2010. Analysis of rabies situation was based on species involved and geographical distribution of rabies outbreaks. Favourable decreasing trend in rabies epidemic in 2009 was stopped by the outbreak of rabies in the Malopolska province in 2010. This resulted in dramatic increase in the number of rabies cases. Emergency vaccination in the zone of rabies outbreak with increased number of vaccines per km2 in bordering areas of the province has improved epizootic situation, which returned to the state before the outbreak. To monitor rabies situation a strict supervision of all elements of the ORV and surveillance of rabies is necessary.

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Plasma levels of catecholamines and asymmetric dimethylarginine levels as predictive values of mortality among hemodialysis patients


The aim of the study was to assess plasma concentration of catecholamines and asymmetric dimethyl arginine levels and a possible relationship to predict the mortality rates among hemodialysis patients. The study population comprised 27 subjects, aged 65-70 years. Each patient underwent dialysis thrice a week. Furthermore, the median duration of hemodialysis was 3.5 years. Based on the conducted research, it can be concluded that the concentrations of adrenaline and the level of asymmetric dimethylarginine have predictive value of mortality among hemodialysis patients. Of note, lowering plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine concentration may represent therapeutic target for prevention of progressive renal damage.

Open access